|Scientific Name:||Harriotta raleighana|
|Species Authority:||Goode & Bean, 1895|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Kyne, P.M., Fowler, S.L. & Compagno, L.J.V. (Shark Red List Authority)|
This species appears to be the only chimaeroid with a widespread, global distribution. Occurs in deep waters of the continental slopes in depths of 380 to 2,600 m in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Also occurs in the Indian Ocean (off southern Australia). They seem to be somewhat common in the Northern Atlantic, Northwest Pacific and Southwest Pacific, however, very little is known about the biology of this species. They are oviparous but nothing is known of spawning and reproduction and very few juveniles have been collected. As with many other chimaeroids adults and juveniles may occupy different habitats. Known to be captured in deepwater research trawls and as bycatch in deepwater commercial trawls. Data from the South Tasman Rise Trawl Fishery (south of Tasmania, Australia) indicates that this species is a negligible component of bycatch. Increased deepwater trawl fisheries could pose a potential threat to habitats and populations in the future. At present this species appears to be widespread geographically and bathymetrically and relatively abundant with no immediate threats to the population and is thus classified as Least Concern. However, bycatch data from other fisheries and the monitoring of expanding deepwater fisheries are required.
|Range Description:||Range appears to be widespread and worldwide (although not widely recorded in the Indian Ocean at present), with the largest numbers recorded from the western Pacific and northern Atlantic. Nothing is known of population structure, although molecular evidence may support regional populations. Other species of chimaeroids appear to have wide ranges (e.g., R. atlantica and R. pacifica), but H. raleighana is the only chimaeroid that may be global in its distribution.
Harriotta raleighana has been recorded from the Canary Islands, however it should be noted that references to the species from that location by Bigelow and Schroeder (1953) may in fact be referred to as H. haeckeli.
Native:Australia (New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia); Brazil; Canada (Nova Scotia); China; Japan; New Zealand; Peru; South Africa (Western Cape); Spain (Canary Is.); United Kingdom; United States (California, Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – southwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Appears to be fairly abundant in areas where they are known to occur.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Occur primarily in deep waters of continental slopes at depths at 380 to 2,600 m.
Oviparous but nothing is known of spawning and reproduction and very few juveniles have been collected. As with many other chimaeroids adults and juveniles may occupy different habitats. Diet may consist of a variety of benthic invertebrates and fish.
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (body length): ~35 cm BDL (estimate) (female); ~25 to 30 cm BDL (estimate) (male).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 120 cm TL (females larger than males).
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
Not known to be targeted in any commercial fishery but caught as bycatch in commercial deepwater bottom trawls, although the only such data on bycatch available is from the South Tasman Rise Trawl Fishery (STRF). The STRF targets orange roughy and other deepwater teleost species south of Tasmania as a straddling stock between Australia and New Zealand. Harriotta raleighana was a negligible component of bycatch with an estimated catch of 0.31t in 545 tows between November 1998 and September 2000 (<0.1 of total catch) of which 8% was retained (Anderson and Clark 2003).
Seem to be relatively common in deepwater survey trawls. Increased deepwater trawl fisheries could pose a potential threat to habitats and populations in the future and monitoring would be required.
No management or conservation measures are known to be in place. Data from specimens collected incidentally would be helpful in understanding population structure and life history of this species.
The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA?Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and sustainable management of all chondrichthyan species in the region. See Anon. (2004) for an update of progress made by nations in the range of H. raleighana.
|Citation:||Dagit, D.D. 2006. Harriotta raleighana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 October 2014.|