Somatochlora borisi 

Scope: Global, Europe & Mediterranean
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Odonata Corduliidae

Scientific Name: Somatochlora borisi Marinov, 2001
Common Name(s):
English Bulgarian Emerald
French Cordulie de Bulgarie
Corduliochlora borisi (Marinov, 2001)
Taxonomic Source(s): Schorr, M. and Paulson, D. 2013. World Odonata List. Tacoma, Washington, USA Available at: (Accessed: 20 November 2013).
Taxonomic Notes: Marinov and Seidenbusch (2007) place this taxon in a new monotypic genus, Corduliochlora. We refrain from using Corduliochlora as long as no overall phylogenetic study of the Corduliidae has been undertaken.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C1+2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2013-01-15
Assessor(s): Kalkman, V.J.
Reviewer(s): Suhling, F. & Smith, K.
Contributor(s): Boudot, J.-P.
The current traditional activities in the area form no threat to the species. Future intensification of agriculture and of conifer plantations in connection to the extension of the European Union represent notable threats for the next 10 years. In addition, current climate warming with increased frequency, length and intensity of drought periods constitute a strong threat for the species. The species has a relatively small range with an estimated extent of occurrence of 13,750 km2. The adult population size is probably less than 10,000 adults divided across 17 different streams systems, with none of them with an annual population over ca. 1,000 adults. A decrease of 10% is expected during the next 10 years, due to more modern economic development, forest management and climate warming. Thus this species is listed as Vulnerable.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Somatochlora borisi is a recently discovered species. Based on current knowledge of the species (Marinov 2001, Grebe et al. 2005, Boudot et al. 2004, Lopau 2005, Fleck et al. 2007) it is a strict endemic of the eastern Balkans occurring in the area that crosses the borders of Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey. All 17 known inhabited stream systems fall within a 13,750 km² area within both the Eastern Rhodopes and the northern and southern foot-slopes of the Istranca range, the latter being an eastern continuity of the Rhodopes range. This area has a hot and humid climate and has much forest cover, which is used both for wood production and traditional extensive rearing of goats and sheep. A number of valleys, when not planted with conifers, are well preserved and have a great entomological and botanical richness.
Countries occurrence:
Bulgaria; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe)
Additional data:
Number of Locations:17
Upper elevation limit (metres):300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Seventeen stream systems are presently known to be inhabited by this species. Based on exuviae collections, counting and extrapolation during and after emergence of adults, the species seems relatively abundant in some places (100-500), and scarce in others (less than 50). A rough extrapolation leads to an estimated annual number of adults of less than 10,000.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:9000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The main habitats are forest rivers at places with low current and below 300 m above sea level. Larvae are able to survive the drought summer period in disconnected residual pools in river beds. However, the species does not reproduce in standing water.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Most of the forest areas where this species occurs are currently extensively used for traditional rearing of goats and sheep, which result in a number of clearing areas. However, intensive conifer plantations have been grown in the past and such monospecific forest areas seem to be unfavourable for S. borisi. Monospecific plantations of Robinia pseudacacia are now developed on abandoned agricultural fields, which may reduce the availability of maturation and foraging areas. Additional conifer plantations, water pollution and stream drying in relation to global warming and abnormal summer drought may be a threat for this species in the future. As early as end July 2008, Greek localities visited showed only disconnected residual pools with no flowing water at all. With drought periods increasing in intensity, length and frequency, the species is at risk of extinction.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Necessary conservation actions are the control of water pollution, removal of conifer plantations and restoration of deciduous forests combined with the creation or maintenance of non-wooded sunny areas, particularly in the bottom of valleys. Conservation of clear riparian forests, traditionally induced by extensive rearing of goats and sheep, is required, as well as conservation of riverine trees. Two rivers inhabited by this species are included in the Greek national Dadia Protected Area buffer zone.

Citation: Kalkman, V.J. 2014. Somatochlora borisi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T59774A42610428. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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