Somatochlora borisi


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Somatochlora borisi
Species Authority: Marinov, 2001
Common Name/s:
English Bulgarian Emerald
French Cordulie de Bulgarie
Corduliochlora borisi (Marinov, 2001)
Taxonomic Notes: Marinov & Seidenbusch (2007) place this taxon in a new monotypic genus, Corduliochlora. We refrain from using Corduliochlora as long as no overall phylogenetic study of the Corduliidae has been undertaken.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C1+2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-04-21
Assessor/s: Boudot, J.-P.
Reviewer/s: De Knijf, G., Ferreira, S. & Riservato, E.
European regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
EU 27 regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)

Currently there are no threats from traditional human activities in the area. However, future intensification of agriculture and of conifer plantations in connection to the extension of the European Union represent notable threats for the next 10 years. In addition, current climate warming with increased frequency, length and intensity of drought periods constitute a very strong threat for the species. The adult population size is probably less than 10,000 adults, and a decrease of 10% is expected during the next 10 years, due to more modern economic development, forest management and climate warming. Thus this species is listed as Vulnerable.
2006 Near Threatened (IUCN 2006)
2006 Near Threatened

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Somatochlora borisi is a recently discovered species. Based on current knowledge of the species (Marinov 2001, Grebe et al. 2005, Boudot et al. 2004, Lopau 2005, Fleck et al. 2007) it is a strict endemic of the eastern Balkans occurring in the area that crosses the borders of Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey. All 17 known inhabited stream systems fall within a 13,750 km² area within both the Eastern Rhodopes and the northern and southern foot-slopes of the Istranca range, the latter being an eastern continuity of the Rhodopes range. This area has a hot and humid climate and has much forest cover, which is used both for wood production and traditional extensive rearing of goats and sheep. A number of valleys, when not planted with conifers, are well preserved and have a great entomological and botanical richness.
Bulgaria; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Seventeen stream systems are presently known to be inhabited by this species. Based on exuviae collections, counting and extrapolation during and after emergence of adults, the species seems relatively abundant in some places (100-500), and relatively reduced in others (less than 50). A rough extrapolation estimates less than 10,000 adults per year.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The main habitat are forest rivers at places with low current and below 300 m above sea level. Larvae are able to survive the drought summer period in disconnected residual pools in river beds. However, the species does not reproduce in standing water.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Most of the forest areas where this species occurs are currently extensively used for traditional rearing of goats and sheep, which result in a number of clearing areas. However, intensive conifer plantations have been grown in the past and such monospecific forest areas seem to be unfavourable for S. borisi. Monospecific plantations of Robinia pseudacacia are now developed on abandoned agricultural fields, which may reduce the availability of maturation and foraging areas. Additional conifer plantations, water pollution and stream drying in relation to global warming and abnormal summer drought may be a threat for this species in the future. As early as end July 2008, Greek localities visited showed only disconnected residual pools with no flowing water at all. With drought periods increasing in intensity, length and frequency, the species is at risk of extinction.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Necessary conservation actions are the control of water pollution, removal of conifer plantations and restoration of deciduous forests combined with the creation or maintenance of non-wooded sunny areas, particularly in the bottom of valleys. Conservation of clear riparian forests, traditionally induced by extensive rearing of goats and sheep, is required, as well as conservation of riverine trees. Two rivers inhabited by this species are included in the Greek national Dadia Protected Area buffer zone.
Citation: Boudot, J.-P. 2010. Somatochlora borisi. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 20 April 2014.
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