|Scientific Name:||Siphonops annulatus|
|Species Authority:||(Mikan, 1820)|
Caecilia annulata Mikan, 1820
Caecilia interrupta Cuvier, 1829
Dermophis crassus Cope, 1885
Siphonops annulatus subspecies marmoratus Sawaya, 1937
|Taxonomic Notes:||This is a poorly circumscribed species in need of taxonomic review (M. Wilkinson pers. comm.). It is unclear that all biological populations within its large range are conspecific. However, these are included in the current assessment until their taxonomic identities can be clarified.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Baldo, D., Lavilla, E., Measey, J., Hoogmoed, M., Wilkinson, M. & Reichle, S.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Angulo, A. & Jarvis, L.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats and presumed large population.
|Range Description:||This species is widely distributed through tropical South America (Maciel et al. 2013), ranging from east of the Andes from northern Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela and French Guiana, south to Amazonian Brazil and Bolivia, and then from northeastern Brazil south to southern Brazil and northern Argentina, appearing to be disjunct in the open vegetation diagonal of Brazil (Maciel et al. 2013). In Argentina, this species is found in the southern part of Misiones. In Bolivia, it is found in Beni, La Paz, Pando and Santa Cruz. It is generally found below 800 m asl.|
Native:Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; French Guiana; Peru; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It appears to be common in some parts of its range. Surveys in the region of San Martín, Peru found just two individuals after 90 and >100 person/days in 2006 and 2008, respectively (von May et al. 2008).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is a subterranean species and can be found in humid soils in forested and open environments (including dry Caatinga savannah). It also occurs in rural gardens, plantations and other anthropogenic habitats. It is oviparous with terrestrial eggs and direct development, and not dependent on water for breeding.|
|Use and Trade:||
There are no reports of this species being utilized.
There appear to be no major known threats to this species.
|Conservation Actions:||It occurs in many protected areas. Further research is required into the taxonomy of this species.|
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Siphonops annulatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.|
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