|Scientific Name:||Gymnopis multiplicata Peters, 1874|
Cryptopsophis multiplicatus (Peters, 1878)
Cryptopsophis simus (Cope, 1877)
Dermophis proximus (Cope, 1877)
Dermophis simus (Cope, 1877)
Gymnopis proxima (Cope, 1877)
Gymnopis sima (Cope, 1877)
Siphonops proximus Cope, 1877
Siphonops simus Cope, 1877
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||It is uncertain that all populations within its range are conspecific.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Wetterau, A., Gratwicke, B., Jaramillo, C., Bolaños, F., Solís, F., Castañeda, F., Chaves, G., Köhler, G., Cruz, G., Sunyer, J., Savage, J., Wilson, L.D., Wilkinson, M., Wake, M. & Ibáñez, R.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats and presumed large population.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species from Central America is found in the western cordilleras and western Atlantic lowlands from eastern Guatemala, through Honduras and Nicaragua, to northwestern Panama. It is also found on the Pacific versant on premontane slopes and in the lowlands in northwestern Costa Rica and on the lowlands of southwestern Costa Rica and adjacent Panama. In Panama it has been recorded from Isla Cristóbal, Isla Escudo de Veraguas and Isla Colon (Marvalee Wake pers. comm.) in the Bocas del Toro. In Costa Rica it has been recorded from Isla del Caño. Its altitudinal range is from sea level up to 1,400 m asl.|
Native:Costa Rica; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is a low density, fairly common species. In Costa Rica, it is unusual in Guayacan (Kubicki 2008) but moderately abundant throughout its range (G. Chaves pers. comm. 2015). The species is uncommon and populations are decreasing in El Quebracho, Nicaragua (Barquero et al. 2010), and in southeastern Nicaragua this species is relatively abundant (Sunyer et al. 2009).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is a subterranean species of humid lowland and montane forest, lowland dry forest, gallery forest, meadows, pastures, saturated sedge peat, and secondary habitats. It is a viviparous species, and development of young takes place in the female oviduct.|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||Suitable forest within the species range is being extensively converted to agricultural use including banana and coffee plantations. Although the species can be found in modified areas, it persists at considerably reduced densities than in primary and secondary tropical forest.|
It has been recorded from several protected areas, including the Sierra el Caral in Guatemala and the Reservas de la Biosfera Bosawas and Sureste de Nicaragua in Nicaragua (Sunyer et al. 2009, Sunyer et al. 2009).
There is a particular need to conserve remaining areas of lowland tropical forest for this species.
Research is required into the population dynamics of this species.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Gymnopis multiplicata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T59562A54356308.Downloaded on 22 September 2018.|
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