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Triturus carnifex

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA CAUDATA SALAMANDRIDAE

Scientific Name: Triturus carnifex
Species Authority: (Laurenti, 1768)
Common Name(s):
English Italian Crested Newt
Taxonomic Notes: Some of the populations north of the Alps, in Austria and Germany, show degrees of hybridisation with Triturus cristatus; T. carnifex is not included in the German list as all populations are considered hybrids. The exact ranges of members of the Triturus cristatus superspecies are unclear in the central Balkans. Subspecies macedonicus has been recommended as a separate species by Arntzen et al. (2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Antonio Romano, Jan Willem Arntzen, Mathieu Denoël, Robert Jehle, Franco Andreone, Brandon Anthony, Benedikt Schmidt, Wiesiek Babik, Robert Schabetsberger, Milan Vogrin, Miklós Puky, Petros Lymberakis, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Rastko Ajtic, Claudia Corti
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
History:
2004 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs through most of Italy, southern Switzerland, Slovenia, northern Croatia, and northern Bosnia-Herzegovina, with an apparently disjunct population on the Adriatic side of the Balkan Peninsula in eastern Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, FYR Macedonia, Albania, south to central Greece. There are populations north of the Alps in Austria, southeast Bavaria (Germany), western Hungary, and southern Czech Republic. There are a number of introduced populations in western Switzerland (Geneva), Germany (not mapped), Portugal (São Miguel Island in the Azores), the Netherlands (not mapped) and the UK (not mapped). Recorded from sea level to elevations approaching 2,000m asl (Greece).
Countries:
Native:
Albania; Austria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Czech Republic; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Serbia (Serbia); Slovenia; Switzerland
Introduced:
Netherlands; Portugal (Azores); United Kingdom
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There are large populations in the south of its range, with the species becoming less abundant in the north. It is still locally very abundant in Italy, but several populations on the River Po plain are known to have become extinct. It is known to be dramatically decreasing through habitat loss in Montenegro (Kalezic and Dzukic, 2001), and populations are declining generally in the Balkans.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: There are a wide variety of terrestrial habitats from beech woodlands to arid Mediterranean climates. Its breeding and larval development take place in various stagnant permanent and temporary aquatic habitats. This species can be found in modified habitats such as quarries and artificial water bodies such as stony wells, tanks and drinking troughs. In central and southern Italy, artificial water bodies can be the commonest breeding sites (e.g. Romano et al. 2007; Corsetti and Romano 2007)
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is sensitive to changes in water quality. The principal threats to the species are loss of aquatic habitats, especially breeding sites, through agricultural intensification and agrochemical pollution, and introduction of predatory fishes. In the Balkans, there has been loss of breeding habitats in recent years due to decreased spring rains, perhaps as a result of global climate change, and presumed mortality of individuals because of predation by introduced fishes.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention. Listed on Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive. Protected by national legislation in several countries. It is present in a number of protected areas over its range.

Citation: Antonio Romano, Jan Willem Arntzen, Mathieu Denoël, Robert Jehle, Franco Andreone, Brandon Anthony, Benedikt Schmidt, Wiesiek Babik, Robert Schabetsberger, Milan Vogrin, Miklós Puky, Petros Lymberakis, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Rastko Ajtic, Claudia Corti 2009. Triturus carnifex. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 October 2014.
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