Desmognathus quadramaculatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae

Scientific Name: Desmognathus quadramaculatus (Holbrook, 1840)
Common Name(s):
English Blackbelly Salamander
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (7 July 2014). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: Camp et al. (2002) elevated the form Desmognathus folkertsi to specific status.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-07-31
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Hammerson, G.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Angulo, A.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species can be found in Southern West Virginia through mountains to northern Georgia, USA. There are scattered populations in South Carolina and Georgia Piedmont, possibly due to use as fish bait. It is generally found at elevations above 500 m asl to at least 1,646 m asl, but it might occur at lower elevations if the conditions are suitable (Petranka 1998).
Countries occurrence:
United States (Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia)
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):500
Upper elevation limit (metres):1646
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The total adult population size is unknown but it surely exceeds 10,000. In the southern Appalachians, populations fluctuated over a 20-year period (early 1970s to early 1990s), with no apparent long-term trend (Hairston and Wiley 1993).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It can be found in or along swift, boulder-strewn mountain streams. Also near waterfalls and places where cold water drips or seeps. Refuges are in rock crevices or in burrows (Camp and Lee 1996). It is usually under rocks in daytime. Sometimes it basks in sun on wet rocks. Eggs are laid on undersides of rocks or on tree roots in streambeds, apparently in headwater tributaries in North Carolina (Bruce 1985). The larvae develop in water.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is used as fishing bait.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Locally subpopulations might be depleted through use as fish bait, and streams exposed to acidic leachate from mining could experience negative impacts (Petranka 1998).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Regulation of collection for use as fish bait might be appropriate in some areas. Its range overlaps with many protected areas.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2014. Desmognathus quadramaculatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T59256A64000134. . Downloaded on 19 September 2018.
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