Desmognathus monticola


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Desmognathus monticola
Species Authority: Dunn, 1916
Common Name(s):
English Seal Salamander

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Geoffrey Hammerson
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species can be found in the eastern USA from southwestern Pennsylvania southwest in uplands through West Virginia, western Maryland, western and northern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, western South Carolina, and northern Georgia to central Alabama and disjunctive to southern Alabama and the extreme western tip of the Florida panhandle (Conant and Collins 1991, Petranka 1998). Evidently it does not occur north or west of the Ohio River in the northern part of the range.
United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 100,000. In the southern Appalachians, populations fluctuated over a 20-year period (early 1970s to early 1990s), with no apparent long-term trend (Hairston and Wiley 1993).
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It can be found in mountain streams, small rocky spring-fed brooks in hardwood-shaded ravines, seepages, muddy section of streams. Hides under rocks or moss, and in burrows in mud banks. Sometimes perches on wet rocks. Eggs are laid on undersides of rocks or leaves in water or seepages; also under or in logs near water.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No major pervasive threats are known.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None needed. It occurs in many protected areas.

Citation: Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Desmognathus monticola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 04 September 2015.
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