Ambystoma texanum 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Ambystomatidae

Scientific Name: Ambystoma texanum (Matthes, 1855)
Common Name(s):
English Smallmouth Salamander
Salamandra texana Matthes, 1855
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-08-25
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Hammerson, G.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Green, C., Sharp, D. & Garcia Moreno, J.
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of sub-populations and locations, large population size and use of a wide range of habitats.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs on Pelee Island in Ontario, Canada, and in the USA from the coast of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi and western Alabama, north to eastern Nebraska, southern Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, southern Michigan, and Ohio (Conant and Collins 1991). The extent of occurrence is estimated at around 1,389,000 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Canada (Ontario); United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, West Virginia)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 100,000. Overall, its sub-populations are relatively stable although there are some local declines due to habitat loss.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits a wide range of ecological conditions: tall grass prairie, moist pine woodland, flood plain forest, oak woodland, dense hardwood forest, and intensely farmed areas. Adults are usually found underground, under rocks, leaves, logs, in crayfish burrows, etc. Breeding sites vary, and include forest ponds, temporary pools, ditches, spring-fed pools, and slow upper portions of streams. Breeding occurs in ponds or other lentic habitats, where small clumps of eggs, or occasionally single eggs (Kraus and Petranka 1989), are attached to vegetation or detritus in exposed sites. Smallmouth salamanders sometimes breed in streams (recorded in Kentucky and Indiana) and sometimes lay eggs cryptically as in A. barbouri. This species has a free-living larval stage.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The biggest threat is conversion of bottomland habitat to agricultural use (Petranka 1998). Cutting of trees and removal of rotting trunks is detrimental to the salamanders because a canopy is important to retard evaporation of breeding ponds and flooded areas, and rotting trunks provide habitat for invertebrates that serve as food for transformed salamanders (COSEWIC 2004).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species occurs in a large number of protected areas in the United States. It also occurs in The Mosquito Point Woods that is within the Canadian Provincial Park System’s Fish Point Nature Reserve. 

Conservation Needed
Necessary conservation measures include protection of bottom-land forest habitat that includes vernal ponds (Petranka 1998). 

Research Needed
Research is required for population size, distribution, and monitoring.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Ambystoma texanum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T59071A56561668. . Downloaded on 19 August 2018.
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