Theloderma phrynoderma 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Rhacophoridae

Scientific Name: Theloderma phrynoderma (Ahl, 1927)
Common Name(s):
English Burmese Bug-eyed Frog
Rhacophorus phrynoderma Ahl, 1927
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: Taylor (1962) appeared to doubt the placement of this species in Theloderma (although his argument is confused by reference to the genus Phrynoderma).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-01-12
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Nguyen, T.Q.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Rowley, J.L., Cutajar, T.
Listed as Least Concern as this species is relatively widespread, with an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 142,006 km2.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species has been recorded at between approximately 59–1,400 m Asl, but at only two localities in eastern Myanmar - Thao in the Karen Hills, and Tanintharyi Nature Reserve in Tanintharyi State (Boulenger 1893, Dever et al. 2015). These may not represent the actual limits of the species' range as habitat is contiguous across the >500 km distance between its known localities (Olsen et al. 2001, Dever et al. 2015), and similar habitat and elevations also extend into adjacent parts of western Thailand. Further surveys in these areas may uncover its presence, and they have been included in the range map associated with this assessment. The species' estimated EOO is 142,006 km2, which represents four threat-defined locations.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:4
Lower elevation limit (metres):59
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The size of this species' population is not well known, however it has been detected in only two surveys (e.g. Boulenger 1893, Dever et al. 2015). It is possible that such low detectability is due at least in part to cryptic behaviour rather than being a representation of true rarity. It is likely that ongoing forest loss associated with expanding agriculture throughout Southeast Asia (Sodhi et al. 2009) is causing some population declines. Further surveys are needed to determine its population trends in the wild.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is associated with both lowland and montane wet evergreen forest as well as evergreen mixed with deciduous and bamboo forest (Boulenger 1893, Dever et al. 2015). Nothing is known about this species' reproductive behaviour, however it presumably breeds by larval development and deposits eggs in water-filled tree holes, rock depressions or other small, still water bodies, as do other Theloderma for which the reproductive strategies are known. Habitat throughout much of this species' range is undergoing a continuing decline in quality and extent due to the effects of expanding agriculture (Sodhi et al. 2009).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss and degradation due to rapidly expanding agriculture is an ongoing threat to biodiversity throughout Southeast Asia (Sodhi et al. 2009). Agricultural encroachment on natural forest is ongoing in much of Myanmar (Sodhi et al. 2009). This species is likely threatened to some degree by habitat loss.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
This species is known from Tanintharyi Nature Reserve (Dever et al. 2015). A number of other protected areas are included in its predicted range in both Myanmar and Thailand; it likely occurs in some of these also.

Research Needed
In order to ensure the species' long-term survival, the lack of data must be addressed; research should be carried out to determine its true distribution, relative abundance, life history, and threats.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2017. Theloderma phrynoderma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T59038A88213030. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
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