|Scientific Name:||Lithobates vibicarius|
|Species Authority:||(Cope, 1894)|
Levirana vibicaria Cope, 1894
Lithobates vibicaria (Cope, 1894) [orth. error]
Rana godmani Günther, 1900
Rana vibicaria (Cope, 1894)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D1 ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group & NatureServe|
|Contributor(s):||Rojas C, A., Jaramillo, C., Bolaños, F., Solís, F., Pounds, J., Savage, J., Castro Morales, O., Fuenmayor, Q., Puschendorf, R. & Ibáñez, R.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Angulo, A. & Young, B.E.|
Listed as Vulnerable because extensive surveys for this species have turned up only three subpopulations with relative abundance of all life stages estimated to be in the hundreds; while there are currently no more precise estimates, at this time it is thought that the combined number of mature individuals may not surpass 1,000 individuals.
|Range Description:||This species was previously widely distributed in the Cordillera de Tilarán, Cordillera Central, and Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica and western Panama, at elevations of 1,500-2,700 m asl (Savage 2002). It is now known with certainty from (1) near Monteverde, (2) sites within the Cordillera Central (Parque Nacional Juan Castro Blanco and Cerro Chompipe), and Chumacera, Pérez Zeledón, in Costa Rica (Castro-Cruz and García-Fernandez 2012; G. Chaves unpubl. data March 2013). There are no recent reports from Panama, despite efforts to relocate it (Hertz et al. 2012).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
It was once very common in Costa Rica but had apparently disappeared from the country by 1990. However, a single individual was reported in 2002 from near Monteverde, and larvae were found and reared in 2003. One small breeding pool is now known near Monteverde in the Monteverde Conservation League Children's Eternal Rainforest (Andrew Gray and Mark Wainwright in litt. to Bruce Young September 2007). This population was reported to be healthy, with several hundred animals, including dozens of breeding pairs, juveniles and egg clutches observed (Andrew Gray and Mark Wainwright in litt. to Bruce Young). In November 2007, a second subpopulation with dozens of adults was discovered close to the Parque Nacional Juan Castro Blanco in Costa Rica, at 1,984 m asl (Castro-Cruz and García-Fernández 2012). By 2010, an additional population where a handful of adults were found was also located at Chumacera, Pérez Zeledón (G. Chaves unpubl. data March 2013).
The status of this species in Panama is unclear, and surveys conducted between 2008-2010 did not render any new records (Hertz et al. 2012), but it has presumably also declined, and possibly disappeared, from this country.
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is a semi-aquatic frog occurring in lower montane and lower portions of montane rainforest. The species prefers dense woods, but may also be found near bodies of water in clearings or pastures. The subpopulation close to the Parque Nacional Juan Castro Blanco was found in an open area close to secondary forest and some shallow ponds of slow moving water, with additional animals found in secondary growth forest (A. Rojas C. pers. comm. 2008). Calling and mating take place at night, with males generally calling from vegetation in water. Breeding sites include shallow ponds, puddles or slow-moving waters. Eggs are attached to vegetation (Savage 2002).|
|Use and Trade:||
There are no reports of this species being utilized.
|Major Threat(s):||Chytrid fungus has been confirmed both in this species and its range (Lips 2003, Puschendorf et al. 2009). Habitat loss, due to agriculture, logging, and human settlement, has presumably also affected this species. Animals from the subpopulation close to the Parque Nacional Juan Castro Blanco have been found with deformities, and there is some suggestion that agricultural chemicals, possibly applied to the grassy vegetation in the area, might be the cause of the deformities and the lack of larvae recently observed in the nearby stream (A. Rojas C. pers. comm. 2008).|
|Conservation Actions:||It has been recorded from a number of protected areas. The current status of the surviving subpopulations requires further investigation and monitoring, as well as the potential impact of chytrid fungus on them; given the possibility of a chytridiomycosis outbreak, recommended conservation measures should consider the establishment of a captive-breeding programme. Additional resource protection is recommended for the currently unprotected subpopulations.|
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group & NatureServe 2013. Lithobates vibicarius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 August 2015.|
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