Rana macrocnemis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Ranidae

Scientific Name: Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885
Common Name(s):
English Brusa Frog, Banded Frog, Caucasian Brown Frog , Caucasus Frog, Iranian Long-legged Frog, Iranian Long-legged Wood Frog, Long-legged Wood Frog, Transcaucasian Frog
Rana camerani Boulenger, 1886
Rana macrocnemis ssp. camerani (Boulenger, 1886)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: We follow Veith et al. (2003), in considering Rana pseudodalmatina and R. tavasensis to be distinct at the species level, and regarding R. camerani to be conspecific with R. macrocnemis. However, we follow Çevik et al. (2006) and Baran et al. (2007) in considering Rana holtzi to be a valid species, contra Veith et al. (2003). There is ongoing discussion regarding the taxonomic distinctiveness of R. camerani.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Sergius Kuzmin, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Natalia Ananjeva, Nikolai Orlov, Boris Tuniyev, Max Sparreboom, Ismail Ugurtas, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Theodore Papenfuss, Steven Anderson, Güven Eken, Tuba Kiliç, Engin Gem, Uğur Kaya
Reviewer(s): Neil Cox and Helen Temple
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. In the Caucasus, this species is experiencing significant declines as a result of raccoons and deforestation.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in the Caucasus Mountains and throughout much of Anatolia, Turkey. An isolated population exists on the Strizhament Mountain in the Stavropolskii Region of Russia. It has been recorded from Iraq (Kevork 1972) but further details of this population are needed and it is not mapped here. It has an altitudinal range sea level to 3,000m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Russian Federation; Turkey
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):3000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is mostly common over its range. There are significant declines in parts of its range.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is mainly found in humid areas included broadleaved, mixed and coniferous forests, swamps, steppes, sub alpine and alpine meadows. In dry areas this species is generally limited to areas close to permanent lakes, rivers, brooks and springs that are often surrounded by dense herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. It breeds in various stagnant and slow-flowing waterbodies. It is presumed to be tolerant of some habitat disturbance such as light grazing.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the Caucasus of the former USSR destruction and pollution of suitable habitat by cattle has caused some local population declines. In the western Caucasus, this species is threatened by predation invasive introduced raccoons (Procyon lotor) and deforestation for agriculture and timber. The species is under pressure from grazing and development for tourism in Turkey. It is possible that deforestation (especially of Juniperus woods) might have contributed to the increasing aridity of the Kopet-Dagh Mountains in Turkmenia, leading to the extinction of the species. Prolonged drought might be a threat to populations in more arid areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed in the Red Data Book of Turkmenistan and has been recorded from protected areas in Russia, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. It is found in protected areas in Turkey. This species was included in the supplement to the Red Data Book in Russia and several regional Red Data Books due to declines because of raccoon predation and habitat loss from deforestation.

Citation: Sergius Kuzmin, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Natalia Ananjeva, Nikolai Orlov, Boris Tuniyev, Max Sparreboom, Ismail Ugurtas, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Theodore Papenfuss, Steven Anderson, Güven Eken, Tuba Kiliç, Engin Gem, Uğur Kaya. 2009. Rana macrocnemis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T58651A11820145. . Downloaded on 21 September 2018.
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