Hoplobatrachus occipitalis


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Hoplobatrachus occipitalis
Species Authority: (Günther, 1858)
Common Name(s):
English African Groove-crowned Frog, Crowned Bullfrog, Eastern Groove-crowned Bullfrog
Rana occipitalis Günther, 1858
Taxonomic Notes: This species is believed to consist of at least two species (Bogart and Tandy 1981), with tetraploid populations known from the islands of Lake Victoria and from Liberia. These have not yet been formally distinguished.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2013-04-17
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Morris, E.J.
Contributor(s): Salvador, A., Howell, K., Largen, M.J., Burger, M., Rödel , M.-O., Lötters, S. & Joger, U.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Tarrant, J.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a wide variety of habitats and its presumed large population.
2004 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species of the African savannah zone ranges from southern Mauritania to Ethiopia, south through East Africa to northern Zambia, southern and western Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, and coastal Congo, Gabon and Cameroon. There are isolated subpopulations in southwestern Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, southeastern Western Sahara and nearby Mauritania, the Air mountains of Niger, and northern Mali [Adrar de Iforas].
Algeria; Angola (Angola); Benin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Libya; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Sudan; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Western Sahara; Zambia
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is widespread and common over much of its range, with relict isolated subpopulations in oases and wells in the Sahelian and Saharan regions.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It lives in many habitats from dry savannahs to disturbed forest, using logging roads and rivers to penetrate deep into lowland forest. It is invasive into forested areas where forests have been disturbed (V. Gvozdik pers. comm. 2012). It breeds in small to medium-sized temporary waters, but not in permanent waters, since it cannot compete with fish.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

The species is used as food by some societies.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Human consumption is a problem locally, especially in West and Central Africa. However, it is an adaptable species, and overall it is not significantly threatened.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in many protected areas. This species is believed to consist of at least two species (Bogart and Tandy 1981), so taxonomic research is required. Research into harvest and consumption patterns is also needed.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Hoplobatrachus occipitalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 28 August 2015.
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