Hoplobatrachus occipitalis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Dicroglossidae

Scientific Name: Hoplobatrachus occipitalis
Species Authority: (Günther, 1858)
Common Name(s):
English African Groove-crowned Frog, Crowned Bullfrog, Eastern Groove-crowned Bullfrog
Rana occipitalis Günther, 1858
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This species is believed to consist of at least two species (Bogart and Tandy 1981), with tetraploid populations known from the islands of Lake Victoria and from Liberia. These have not yet been formally distinguished.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2013-04-17
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Morris, E.J.
Contributor(s): Salvador, A., Howell, K., Largen, M.J., Burger, M., Rödel , M.-O., Lötters, S. & Joger, U.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Tarrant, J.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a wide variety of habitats and its presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species of the African savannah zone ranges from southern Mauritania to Ethiopia, south through East Africa to northern Zambia, southern and western Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, and coastal Congo, Gabon and Cameroon. There are isolated subpopulations in southwestern Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, southeastern Western Sahara and nearby Mauritania, the Air mountains of Niger, and northern Mali [Adrar de Iforas].
Countries occurrence:
Algeria; Angola (Angola); Benin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Libya; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Sudan; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Western Sahara; Zambia
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is widespread and common over much of its range, with relict isolated subpopulations in oases and wells in the Sahelian and Saharan regions.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It lives in many habitats from dry savannahs to disturbed forest, using logging roads and rivers to penetrate deep into lowland forest. It is invasive into forested areas where forests have been disturbed (V. Gvozdik pers. comm. 2012). It breeds in small to medium-sized temporary waters, but not in permanent waters, since it cannot compete with fish.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

The species is used as food by some societies.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Human consumption is a problem locally, especially in West and Central Africa. However, it is an adaptable species, and overall it is not significantly threatened.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in many protected areas. This species is believed to consist of at least two species (Bogart and Tandy 1981), so taxonomic research is required. Research into harvest and consumption patterns is also needed.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2014. Hoplobatrachus occipitalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T58299A18361413. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.
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