Phrynobatrachus pakenhami 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Phrynobatrachidae

Scientific Name: Phrynobatrachus pakenhami Loveridge, 1941
Common Name(s):
English Pakenham's River Frog
Phrynobatrachus nigripes Pickersgill, 2007
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: It has been suggested that this species is a synonym of Phrynobatrachus acridoides, but recent surveys indicate that it differs both in vocalizations and ecology (M. Pickersgill pers. comm.). Phrynobatrachus nigripes, described by Pickersgill (2007), is in fact a synonym of this species (M. Pickersgill pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-12-18
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Zimkus, B., Howell, K., Pickersgill, M. & Loader, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hobin, L.
Listed as Endangered because, although it can withstand a limited degree of habitat modification, its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 317 km2, it occurs in fewer than five locations, and the quality and extent of its forest habitat on Pemba is declining.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from the northern part of Pemba Island, Tanzania, where it has been recorded from three localities: Machengwe Swamp; Wete; and Ngezi Forest Reserve. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 317 km2, and it is known from fewer than five threat-defined locations.
Countries occurrence:
Tanzania, United Republic of
Additional data:
Number of Locations:1-4
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a common species in Ngezi Forest Reserve. It is not clear if it survives elsewhere on the island and intensive surveys have not yet been carried out. Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It has been recorded from forest and forest fringes, and has not been found in severely disturbed habitats. It breeds in pools, marshes, puddles and roadside ditches in and near tropical evergreen lowland forest.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There is an almost complete loss of indigenous broadleaf lowland forest in Pemba, largely for agriculture, which is likely to affect the population of this species. There has also been widespread introduction of clove trees throughout the island, and this species seems not to be present in clove thicket. It is now intrinsically at risk because of the small size of its remaining distribution.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
It occurs in the Ngezi Forest Reserve, which protects the last remaining stand of indigenous rainforest on the island. 

Conservation Needed
Continued management and protection of this forest reserve is essential to the long-term survival of this species. 

Research Needed
Further survey work is needed to determine whether the species still survives elsewhere on Pemba.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Phrynobatrachus pakenhami. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T58130A87854253. . Downloaded on 20 September 2017.
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