Phrynobatrachus pakenhami


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Phrynobatrachus pakenhami
Species Authority: Loveridge, 1941
Common Name(s):
English Pakenham's River Frog
Phrynobatrachus nigripes Pickersgill, 2007
Taxonomic Notes: It has been suggested that this species is a synonym of Phrynobatrachus acridoides, but recent surveys indicate that it differs both in vocalizations and ecology (M. Pickersgill pers. comm.). Phrynobatrachus nigripes, described by Pickersgill (2007), is in fact a synonym of this species (M. Pickersgill pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Pickersgill, M. & Howell, K.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S. & Cox, N.A.
Listed as Endangered because, although it can withstand a limited degree of habitat modification, its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, it occurs in fewer than five locations, and the quality and extent of its forest habitat on Pemba is declining.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known only from the northern part of Pemba Island, Tanzania, where it has been recorded from three localities: Machengwe Swamp; Wete; and Ngezi Forest Reserve.
Tanzania, United Republic of
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is a common species in Ngezi Forest Reserve. It is not clear that it survives elsewhere on the island, although intensive surveys have not yet been carried out.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It lives on the forest floor, and in forest fringes and clearings, and has not been found in areas away from the forest. It breeds in pools, marshes, puddles and roadside ditches in and near tropical evergreen lowland forest.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is probably greatly reduced in population size because of the almost complete loss of indigenous broadleaf lowland forest in Pemba, largely for agriculture. There has been widespread introduction of clove trees throughout the island, and it seems not to be present in clove thicket. It is now intrinsically at risk because of the small size of its remaining distribution.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in the Ngezi Forest Reserve, which protects the last remaining stand of indigenous rainforest on the island. Continued management and protection of this forest reserve is essential to the long-term survival of this species. Further survey work is needed to determine whether the species still survives elsewhere on Pemba.

Citation: Pickersgill, M. & Howell, K. 2008. Phrynobatrachus pakenhami. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 02 September 2015.
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