|Scientific Name:||Phrynobatrachus pakenhami|
|Species Authority:||Loveridge, 1941|
Phrynobatrachus nigripes Pickersgill, 2007
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||It has been suggested that this species is a synonym of Phrynobatrachus acridoides, but recent surveys indicate that it differs both in vocalizations and ecology (M. Pickersgill pers. comm.). Phrynobatrachus nigripes, described by Pickersgill (2007), is in fact a synonym of this species (M. Pickersgill pers. comm.).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Zimkus, B., Howell, K., Pickersgill, M. & Loader, S.|
Listed as Endangered because, although it can withstand a limited degree of habitat modification, its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 317 km2, it occurs in fewer than five locations, and the quality and extent of its forest habitat on Pemba is declining.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is known only from the northern part of Pemba Island, Tanzania, where it has been recorded from three localities: Machengwe Swamp; Wete; and Ngezi Forest Reserve. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 317 km2, and it is known from fewer than five threat-defined locations.|
Native:Tanzania, United Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is a common species in Ngezi Forest Reserve. It is not clear if it survives elsewhere on the island and intensive surveys have not yet been carried out. Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It has been recorded from forest and forest fringes, and has not been found in severely disturbed habitats. It breeds in pools, marshes, puddles and roadside ditches in and near tropical evergreen lowland forest.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||There is an almost complete loss of indigenous broadleaf lowland forest in Pemba, largely for agriculture, which is likely to affect the population of this species. There has also been widespread introduction of clove trees throughout the island, and this species seems not to be present in clove thicket. It is now intrinsically at risk because of the small size of its remaining distribution.|
It occurs in the Ngezi Forest Reserve, which protects the last remaining stand of indigenous rainforest on the island.
Continued management and protection of this forest reserve is essential to the long-term survival of this species.
Further survey work is needed to determine whether the species still survives elsewhere on Pemba.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Phrynobatrachus pakenhami. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T58130A87854253.Downloaded on 24 May 2017.|
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