Gastrophryne carolinensis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Microhylidae

Scientific Name: Gastrophryne carolinensis
Species Authority: (Holbrook, 1836)
Common Name(s):
English Eastern Narrowmouth Toad
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-08-06
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Hedges, B. & Hammerson, G.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Angulo, A.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification and presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is native to the USA from southern Maryland to southeastern Kansas, south to Florida Keys and eastern Texas. It has scattered disjunctive populations along the northern and western margins of its range (Conant and Collins 1991). It is introduced on the Little and Great Bahama banks, and on Grand Cayman Island, Cayman Islands, where it is very abundant (Schwartz and Henderson 1988, Schwartz and Henderson 1991).
Countries occurrence:
United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia)
Bahamas; Cayman Islands
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is represented by many and/or large subpopulations throughout most of the range (Nelson 1972). In Florida and eastern Texas, it is common to abundant even in many suburban situations (Bartlett and Bartlett 1999). The introduced population on Grand Cayman is very abundant.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It occupies a wide variety of shaded moist habitats. It burrows into soil or hides in or under surface cover or debris when inactive. Males call from sheltered locations, often from beneath objects at water's edge or partially buried in grass (Schwartz and Henderson 1991). Eggs and larvae develop in lakes, ponds, sloughs, flooded roadside ditches, swamps, stream margins, rain puddles etc. It uses both temporary and permanent waters. It can persist in human modified habitats such as residential areas.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no known threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Its range overlaps with many protected areas. No conservation methods are needed.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2014. Gastrophryne carolinensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T57813A64207043. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.
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