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Hyperolius marmoratus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA HYPEROLIIDAE

Scientific Name: Hyperolius marmoratus
Species Authority: Rapp, 1842
Common Name(s):
English Marbled Reed Frog, Painted Reed Frog
Taxonomic Notes: This species is part of the Hyperolius viridiflavus superspecies (Laurent 1983, Schiøtz 1971, 1999). It is considered here as a separate species following Wieczorek et al. (2000, 2001). It should be noted that the taxonomic relationships within this superspecies are still far from settled. Members of this superspecies, which consists of a large number of forms that are distributed, generally allopatrically, throughout the tropical African savanna, have a common morphology, voice and ecology, but with widely differing dorsal patterns. Laurent (1983) concluded that the concept of one species best expressed present knowledge, and A. Schiøtz (pers. comm.) agrees with this. Wieczorek et al. (2001) carried out an analysis based on mtDNA, and separated the forms that they examined into 10 species. However, they examined only 22 out of 45 recognized "subspecies". The following distinct forms were not treated in the analysis by Wieczorek et al. (2001) and therefore cannot be allocated to any their ten species: spatzi, pallidus, pachydermus, destefanii, variabilis, coerulescens, karissimbiensis, francoisi, sheldricki, rubripes, mwanzae, reesi, bitaeniatus, rhodoscelis, nyassae, taeniatus, insignis, alborufus, epheboides, aposematicus and broadleyi. An un-named form from Marsabit in northern Kenya also cannot be allocated within the Wieczorek et al. (2001) arrangement of species. The arrangement currently followed by the Global Amphibian Assessment is provisional, pending a more complete analysis of the relationships within the Hyperolius viridiflavus superspecies. A. Schiøtz (pers. comm.) considers that it would have been prefereable for the Global Amphibian Assessment to treat the Hyperolius viridiflavus superspecies as a single species, because under this arrangement, all the described forms are covered unambiguously. Pickersgill (2007) described Hyperolius fumatus as a new species, but we follow Frost (2007) Amphibian Species of the World 5.1 http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php in treating it as a synonym of H. marmoratus. Similarly, Pickersgill (2007) treated verrucosus, taeniatus, aposematicus, alborufus, and nyassae as separate species, but we follow Frost (2007) in including them under H. marmoratus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-06-26
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Channing, A., Schiøtz, A., Harrison, J., Poynton, J. & Minter, L.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Morris, E.J.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its very wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats and its presumed large population.
History:
2004 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species ranges from northern Mozambique, through eastern Malawi and eastern Zimbabwe to Swaziland and eastern and southern South Africa. The western parts of the range in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa probably represent recent spread at higher altitudes. It has also extended its range along the south coast of South Africa (it originally did not occur west of Tstitsikamma). The distributional limits between this species, and other members of the Hyperolius viridiflavus complex, in particular H. glandicolor and H. marginatus, are extremely unclear. The distribution map should therefore be regarded as provisional. It occurs from sea level up to 1,600 m asl in South Africa.
Countries:
Native:
Malawi; Mozambique; South Africa; Swaziland; Zimbabwe
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is an extremely abundant species, and it is extending its range towards the southwest in South Africa.
Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is associated in with emergent vegetation at the margins of swamps, rivers and lakes in all types of savannah, grassland and bush land, as well as many human-modified habitats, including cultivated land, towns and gardens. It spreads rapidly into recently created waterbodies. It breeds in a wide variety of aquatic habitats, ranging from very small to very large ponds, usually using permanent, but often also in temporary, waterbodies. The eggs are deposited directly into the water.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is sometimes found in the international pet trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is an extremely adaptable species that is not facing any significant threats. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in many protected areas.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2013. Hyperolius marmoratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 September 2014.
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