Bufotes surdus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Bufotes surdus (Boulenger, 1891)
Common Name(s):
English Pakistan Toad, Iranian Earless Toad, Iranian Toad, Luristan Toad
Bufo persicus Nikolskii, 1904
Bufo surdus Boulenger, 1891
Pseudepidalea surda (Boulenger, 1891)
Pseudepidalea surdus (Boulenger, 1891) [orth. error]
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (7 July 2014). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This form is a problematic complex of more than one species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2008-12-16
Assessor(s): Muhammad Sharif Khan, Matthias Stöck, Theodore Papenfuss, Steven Anderson, Sergius Kuzmin, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Mozafar Sharifi, Soheila Shafiei Bafti, Sushil Dutta & Annemarie Ohler
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A. & Temple, H.J.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is distributed in the highlands of southwestern Pakistan (western Baluchistan and around Quetta) and much of southern Iran (further verification of identity is needed for the possible isolated population of the Zagros mountains). It has been recorded from eastern Iraq (S. Anderson pers. comm., September 2008). Altitudinal range in Iran is sea level to approximately 2,250 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Pakistan
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2250
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a relatively common species at some temporary waterbodies in Iran; less frequent in Pakistan. It is locally common at the Taftan Mountain in Iran (T. Papenfuss pers. comm., September 2008). This species might be overlooked due to confusion with juveniles of Bufotes variabilis.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A little known species mostly confined to oasis, pools irrigated areas and their surroundings. Breeding occurs during monsoons, with males gathering in temporal pools. Eggs are laid in double strings, which are wound around the pond vegetation; resulting larvae feed on pond vegetation. During the dry season toads seek damp areas under stones and within vegetation; such sites may hold several toads. Present in agricultural areas and also in the vicinity of human settlements.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is generally threatened by intensification of agriculture, including the pollution of breeding sites. Some localized population declines might be occurring with extended periods of drought and habitat loss.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no specific conservation measures for this species. Part of the range, along the Sarboz River of Iran, is within a well-protected crocodile sanctuary. The population found at the Taftan Mountain of Iran is also within a protected area.

Citation: Muhammad Sharif Khan, Matthias Stöck, Theodore Papenfuss, Steven Anderson, Sergius Kuzmin, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Mozafar Sharifi, Soheila Shafiei Bafti, Sushil Dutta & Annemarie Ohler. 2015. Bufotes surdus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T54772A74505632. . Downloaded on 21 April 2018.
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