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Pseudepidalea surda

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA BUFONIDAE

Scientific Name: Pseudepidalea surda
Species Authority: (Boulenger, 1891)
Common Name(s):
English Iranian Earless Toad, Iranian Toad, Pakistan Toad
Synonym(s):
Bufo persicus Nikolskii, 1904
Bufo surdus Boulenger, 1891
Pseudepidalea surdus Boulenger, 1891
Taxonomic Notes: This form is a problematic complex of more than one species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Muhammad Sharif Khan, Matthias Stöck, Theodore Papenfuss, Steven Anderson, Sergius Kuzmin, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Mozafar Sharifi, Soheila Shafiei Bafti, Sushil Dutta & Annemarie Ohler
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. & Temple, H.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
History:
2004 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is distributed in the highlands of southwestern Pakistan (western Baluchistan and around Quetta) and much of southern Iran (further verification of identity is needed for the possible isolated population of the Zagros mountains). It has been recorded from eastern Iraq (Steven Anderson pers. comm., September 2008). Altitudinal range in Iran is sea level to approximately 2,250m asl.
Countries:
Native:
Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Pakistan
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is a relatively common species at some temporary waterbodies in Iran; less frequent in Pakistan. It is locally common at the Taftan Mountain in Iran (Theodore Papenfuss pers. comm., September 2008). This species might be overlooked by confusion with juvenile Pseudepidalea variabilis ssp.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: A little known species mostly confined to oasis, pools irrigated areas and their surroundings. Breeding occurs during monsoons, with males gathering in temporal pools. Eggs are laid in double strings, which are wound around the pond vegetation; resulting larvae feed on pond vegetation. During the dry season toads seek damp areas under stones and within vegetation; such sites may hold several toads. Present in agricultural areas and also in the vicinity of human settlements.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is generally threatened by intensification of agriculture, including the pollution of breeding sites. Some localized population declines might be occurring with extended periods of drought and habitat loss.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no specific conservation measures for this species. Part of the range, along the Sarboz River of Iran, is within a well-protected crocodile sanctuary. The population found at the Taftan Mountain of Iran is also within a protected area.

Citation: Muhammad Sharif Khan, Matthias Stöck, Theodore Papenfuss, Steven Anderson, Sergius Kuzmin, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Mozafar Sharifi, Soheila Shafiei Bafti, Sushil Dutta & Annemarie Ohler 2009. Pseudepidalea surda. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 December 2014.
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