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Duttaphrynus melanostictus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA BUFONIDAE

Scientific Name: Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Species Authority: (Schneider, 1799)
Common Name(s):
English Asian Common Toad, Asian Toad, Black-spectacled Toad, Common Sunda Toad, Javanese Toad
Synonym(s):
Ansonia kamblei Ravichandran and Pillai, 1990
Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799
Bufo tienhoensis Bourret, 1937
Taxonomic Notes: This form is probably a complex of more than one species. Duttaphrynus tienhoensis was synonymized with D. melanostictus by Dubois and Ohler (1999).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Assessor(s): Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Michael Wai Neng Lau, Gu Huiqing, Geng Baorong, Lue Kuangyang, Chou Wenhao, Yuan Zhigang, Bosco Chan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs widely from northern Pakistan through Nepal, Bangladesh, India (including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Sri Lanka, southern China (including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau), Myanmar, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Viet Nam, Thailand and Cambodia to Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Anambas Islands and Natuna Islands, introduced to Bali, Sulawesi, Ambon and Manokwari, New Guinea (northeastern portion of the Vogelkop Peninsula, centred on Manokwari). It has been recorded from sea level up to 1,800m asl.
Countries:
Native:
Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia (Bali - Introduced, Jawa, Kalimantan, Maluku - Introduced, Papua - Introduced, Sulawesi - Introduced, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Macao; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
Introduced:
Papua New Guinea
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is an abundant species throughout its range that is probably increasing in many areas.
Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is mainly a species of disturbed lowland habitats, from upper beaches and riverbanks to human-dominated agricultural and urban areas. It is uncommon in closed forests. It breeds in still and slow-flowing rivers and temporary and permanent ponds and pools. Adults are terrestrial and may be found under ground cover (eg. rocks, leaf-litter, logs), and are also associated with human habitations. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving waterbodies.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this very adaptable species. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat. It is eaten locally in northern Thailand.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None needed, other than further taxonomic study. The range of this species overlaps with many protected areas across its range. The species should be exterminated from New Guinea as a matter of urgency.

Citation: Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Michael Wai Neng Lau, Gu Huiqing, Geng Baorong, Lue Kuangyang, Chou Wenhao, Yuan Zhigang, Bosco Chan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan 2004. Duttaphrynus melanostictus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 July 2014.
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