Anaxyrus americanus


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Anaxyrus americanus
Species Authority: (Holbrook, 1836)
Common Name(s):
English American Toad
Bufo americanus Holbrook, 1836

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Geoffrey Hammerson
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in North America from Labrador, Hudson Bay area, and Manitoba to northern Texas, Louisiana, central Alabama, northern Georgia, and North Carolina (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from most of the Coastal Plain.
Canada; United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is widespread and abundant. It is stable overall, with localized declines.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits a wide variety of habitats, ranging from forests to prairies, wherever there is sufficient moisture and food. It hides under objects or burrows underground when inactive. In New York, distribution is apparently influenced by soil pH (Wyman 1988). It breeds in nearly any slow or standing body of water, including both permanent and temporary pools, generally in sites with few if any fishes (e.g., Holomuzki 1995). Eggs are laid and larvae develop in shallow areas. Embryo survival declines greatly at pH below 4.5 (J. Herpetol. 26:70). In northern Minnesota, successful reproduction in acidic bog water either does not occur or is a rare event (Karns 1992).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No conservation measures are needed.

Citation: Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Anaxyrus americanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 30 August 2015.
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