Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Anaxyrus americanus
Species Authority: (Holbrook, 1836)
Common Name(s):
English American Toad
Bufo americanus Holbrook, 1836
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Geoffrey Hammerson
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in North America from Labrador, Hudson Bay area, and Manitoba to northern Texas, Louisiana, central Alabama, northern Georgia, and North Carolina (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from most of the Coastal Plain.
Countries occurrence:
Canada; United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is widespread and abundant. It is stable overall, with localized declines.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits a wide variety of habitats, ranging from forests to prairies, wherever there is sufficient moisture and food. It hides under objects or burrows underground when inactive. In New York, distribution is apparently influenced by soil pH (Wyman 1988). It breeds in nearly any slow or standing body of water, including both permanent and temporary pools, generally in sites with few if any fishes (e.g., Holomuzki 1995). Eggs are laid and larvae develop in shallow areas. Embryo survival declines greatly at pH below 4.5 (J. Herpetol. 26:70). In northern Minnesota, successful reproduction in acidic bog water either does not occur or is a rare event (Karns 1992).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No conservation measures are needed.

Citation: Geoffrey Hammerson. 2004. Anaxyrus americanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54570A11168510. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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