Anaxyrus americanus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Anaxyrus americanus
Species Authority: (Holbrook, 1836)
Common Name(s):
English American Toad
Bufo americanus Holbrook, 1836
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-08-25
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Hammerson, G.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Green, C., Sharp, D. & Garcia Moreno, J.
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of sub-populations and localities, large population size and occurrence in a wide range of habitats.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in North America from Labrador, Hudson Bay area, and Manitoba to northern Texas, Louisiana, central Alabama, northern Georgia, and North Carolina (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from most of the Coastal Plain.
Countries occurrence:
Canada (Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland I, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward I., Québec); United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is widespread and abundant. It is stable overall, with localized declines.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This toad occurs in a wide variety of habitats, ranging from forests to prairies. It hides under objects or burrows underground when inactive. In New York, distribution is apparently influenced by soil pH (Wyman 1988). It breeds in nearly any slow or standing body of water, including both permanent and temporary pools, generally in sites with few if any fishes (e.g., Holomuzki 1995). Eggs are laid and larvae develop in shallow areas. In northern Minnesota, successful reproduction in acidic bog water either does not occur or is a rare event (Karns 1992).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Research Needed
Research is needed in population size and trends.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Anaxyrus americanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T54570A56843565. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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