Altiphrynoides malcolmi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Altiphrynoides malcolmi (Grandison, 1978)
Common Name(s):
English Malcolm's Ethiopia Toad, Ethiopian Mountain Toad
Nectophrynoides malcolmi Grandison, 1978
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-06-02
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group,
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.
Contributor(s): Mengistu, A.A., Gower, D.J., Gebresenbet, F.G., Largen, M.J. & Loader, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Angulo, A.
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 630 km2, all individuals are considered to occur in two threat-defined locations, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in the Bale Mountains and in the number of mature individuals.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Bale Mountains at 2,500-4,000 m asl, Ethiopia. Taking range as a proxy for extent of occurrence (EOO), this is estimated to be about 630 km2. It is unlikely to occur much more widely (D. Gower and A. Mengistu pers. comm. May 2012). It is considered to occur in two threat-defined locations, approximately north and south of the Sanetti Plateau (D. Gower, A. Mengistu and S. Loader pers. comm. June 2012).
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:2
Lower elevation limit (metres):2500
Upper elevation limit (metres):4000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:During the period 1971-1986, it was found to be common at several sites within its very limited geographical range. Surveys from 2006-2011 have found evidence of significant decline in abundance (Gower et al. 2013). Its population is not considered to be severely fragmented.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species spans the transition from Schefflera-Hagenia-Hypericum forest to Afro-alpine moorland and it also occurs in moderately disturbed habitat (Gower et al. 2012). It is most commonly found under rotting wood and rocks (Largen and Spawls 2010). Egg strings have been found in April amongst moist herbaceous vegetation where development proceeds to metamorphosis through a terrestrial larval stage (Grandison 1978). Clutch size is less than 32 eggs (Grandison 1978).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main observed threat is ongoing human-induced habitat deterioration through cattle grazing and deforestation from firewood collection, fencing and settlement development (Gower et al. 2013). Chytrid fungus occurs in high prevalence in amphibians in highland Ethiopia and has been detected on this species, although its impact is not known (Gower et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: A large part of this species' range lies within the Bale Mountains National Park (Gower et al. 2013), although this protected area is not formally gazetted. There is a long-running conservation programme in the Bale Mountains National Park (Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority and Frankfurt Zoological Society; Frankfurt Zoological Society 2007), but there is a lack of amphibian-specific activities and there is increasing encroachment within the Park, so improved park management is needed (Frankfurt Zoological Society 2007, Gower et al. 2013). Additional actions needed include the protection of remaining montane forest habitats from subsistence exploitation. It is listed in Appendix I of CITES, though it is not present in international trade. More information is needed on this species' distribution, population status, natural history and the potential effects of chytrid fungus. Population monitoring is also needed in view of recent declines.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group,. 2013. Altiphrynoides malcolmi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T54460A16948812. . Downloaded on 21 May 2018.
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