Barbourula kalimantanensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bombinatoridae

Scientific Name: Barbourula kalimantanensis Iskandar, 1978
Common Name(s):
English Bornean Flat-headed Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2017. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Robert Inger, Indraneil Das, Robert Stuebing, Maklarin Lakim, Paul Yambun
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Endangered because its Area of Occupancy is probably less than 500km2, with all individuals in fewer than five locations, and the extent of its forest habitat in Kalimantan is probably declining.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from West Kalimantan in Indonesian Borneo, where it is presently known only from two localities in the middle of the Kapuas River basin: Nanga Sayan (0° 44'S; 111° 40'E), 33km south of Nanga Pinoh; and Sungai Kelawit (0° 37'S; 111° 47'E), in the Melawi River basin, about 1km upstream from Nanga Pintas. It presumably ranges at least a little more widely, but it probably has a restricted distribution.
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Kalimantan)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is known only from two specimens collected 20 years apart. Directed surveys, in suitable habitat, close to the type locality have not recovered any further populations. This suggests that either the species has a very limited distribution or that it exists in very small numbers (R.F. Inger pers. comm.).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Both known specimens were collected in clear rocky rivers, about 20-50m wide, under large rocks in midstream within tropical moist forest. The morphology of these frogs and the sites of collection indicate that this species is fully aquatic, and is probably dependent upon clear water with a high oxygen content. Breeding ecology is not known, but it possibly breeds by direct development. It has not been found in open areas outside forest.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The area where this species occurs is now very highly disturbed due to illegal gold mining, and the rivers have become severely degraded as a result of siltation and also pollution with mercury waste (following its use for gold extraction). It is probably also affected by siltation of its aquatic habitat following deforestation of the surrounding land.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is not known from any protected areas, and effective conservation of large areas of remaining forest habitat is urgently required to help prevent the siltation of rivers.

Citation: Robert Inger, Indraneil Das, Robert Stuebing, Maklarin Lakim, Paul Yambun. 2004. Barbourula kalimantanensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54444A11146474. . Downloaded on 14 August 2018.
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