Peltophryne lemur 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Peltophryne lemur
Species Authority: Cope, 1869 "1868"
Common Name(s):
English Lowland Caribbean Toad, Puerto Rican Crested Toad
Spanish Sapo Concho
Bufo lemur (Cope, 1868)
Bufo lemur (Cope, 1869)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2a; B1ab(v)+2ab(v); C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-12-18
Assessor(s): Ariadne Angulo
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Critically Endangered because of a population decline in the past ten years estimated to be over 80% as recorded from direct observation; and because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 100km2 and its Area of Occupancy is less than 10km2 and there is continuing decline in the number of mature individuals; and because its population size is estimated to be less than 250 mature individuals, there is a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals, and all individuals are in a single subpopulation.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Critically Endangered (CR)
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has a very restricted range, and is known from only a handful of localities along the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. In recent years it has been recorded from only one location on the south coast of Puerto Rico. The species is considered to be extinct at Virgin Gorda Island (Perry and Gerber 2006). It apparently occurred in St. John (U.S. Virgin Islands), but it is currently believed to be extirpated there (Platenberg and Boulon 2006). It has been recorded from sea level up to 50 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Puerto Rico; Virgin Islands, British
Upper elevation limit (metres): 50
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The north coast population has not been recorded since 1992, and it is most likely extirpated in this area. It was last recorded on Virgin Gorda Island in 1964, and other surveys since then have not located any individuals. Since 1992, there has only been one known population remaining. In 1984, there were 900 mature individuals recorded in this population; subsequently, in 1998, there were only 215 mature individuals recorded (of which 34 were females), in 2002 only 100 mature individuals, and in 2003 only 80 mature individuals were recorded (R. Joglar pers. comm.). It was last recorded in 2007 (Hedges and Díaz 2009).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is a terrestrial species found in semi-arid, rocky areas of seasonal evergreen forest. Eggs are laid in permanent or temporary pools of water, streams, or small dams for livestock.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Infrastructure development for human settlement is a major threat, particularly on the north coast. In the south of its range a temporary breeding pool was deliberately drained to clear parking space for visitors to the beach.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The last known population occurs entirely within the Guanica National Forest. Captive breeding has been successful, and after many years a re-introduction program in Puerto Rico seems to be showing some success, with re-introduced captive-bred animals now returning to the constructed ponds where they were first released (Zippel 2005).

Citation: Ariadne Angulo. 2010. Peltophryne lemur. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T54345A11127094. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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