|Scientific Name:||Coregonus peled|
|Species Authority:||(Gmelin, 1789)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Record from Sweden (lake Storvindeln) apparently is C. pallasii. Russian authors recognize four groups of populations, which partly occur in sympatry and which seem to be distinct species: 1) river peled; living in river, spawning in river, extending from Mezen to Ienissei drainages; 2) lake-river peled; in same drainages but absent from Ob' River; 3) large lacustrine peled; spawning in lakes, reaching up to 440 mm SL; 4) dwarf lacustrine peled; living and spawning in lakes, reaching up to 250 mm SL, with a shallower body and several rows of small black spots on body. It is presently not clear, which of them is the 'true' C. peled.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats. Even if the species is split into four different species (see taxonomic notes) they would all be Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Russia: Arctic Ocean basin from Kolyma (eastern Siberia) westward to Mezen drainages. Hybrids involving C. peled introduced in many reservoirs and lakes (Onega) throughout Russia, eastern and central Europe.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Lakes and rivers.
Lives up to 12-13 years (5-6 in dwarf form). Different populations of different forms greatly differ in growth rate. Spawns for the first time at 3-6 years, males one year earlier than females. Females ripen very fast just before spawning; most females spawn each year. Spawns in autumn-early winter depending on local climate, over hard sand (shallows in lakes), sand, gravel or stone bottom (in rivers). In northern lakes, spawns under ice. Depth at spawning sites depends on ice thickness and changes in water level, commonly 1-3 m. Spawning lasts 12-16 days at 2-3°C. Feeds on zooplankton (mostly crustaceans), benthic animals (especially insect larvae and mussels, also algae) and insects from surface.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Coregonus peled. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 September 2014.|
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