|Scientific Name:||Coregonus albula|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Available data do not allow to distinguish C. albula as a whole from C. sardinella and C. vandesius. A very high variability is reported for all morphological characters between the many populations referred to C. albula, suggesting that several species might be involved. Further studies are needed to resolve their identity.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Kottelat, M. & Smith, K.|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats. Identities of some lacustrine populations needs to be confirmed.
European Union 27 = LC. Same rationale as above.
|Range Description:||Baltic basin, lakes of upper Volga drainage (Seliger, Vseluga, Perejaslavskoe), some lakes of White Sea basin and North Sea basin east of Elbe drainage. Anadromous in Gulf of Finland and marine in northernmost freshened part of Gulf of Bothnia. North to about 69°N in Lake Inari, northern Finland. Frequently stocked in lakes and reservoirs in northern and central Germany and Poland.|
Native:Belarus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; Germany; Latvia; Lithuania; Norway; Poland; Russian Federation; Sweden
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Very common. The species extended its range to the north through shipping canals and translocations.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Lacustrine and marine in open water. At sea, forages close to coast. Spawns along shores, at 3-10 m depth, rarely to 22 m depth or just below surface. Spawns deeper in clear lakes and closer to surface in lakes with humic waters.
Anadromous, marine and landlocked populations. Spawns for the first time at 2-5 years (2-3 in Lake Onega), males usually earlier than females. Spawns in October (central Finland), December (northern Germany) at 6-7°C. Anadromous populations start migrating to rivers in August (Neva). Eggs hatch in March-April and juveniles migrate to sea in late summer of first year in anadromous populations. Larvae pelagic close to water surface, usually close to shore. Usually occurs in deep waters in daytime and moves to upper layers at night. Feeds on zooplankton.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information available.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. 2011. Coregonus albula. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 April 2014.|
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