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Paphiopedilum dianthum

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA LILIOPSIDA ORCHIDALES ORCHIDACEAE

Scientific Name: Paphiopedilum dianthum
Species Authority: Tang & F.T.Wang
Common Name(s):
English Double Flowered Paphiopedilum
Synonym(s):
Paphiopedilum parishii (Rchb.f.) Stein subspecies dianthum (Tang & F.T.Wang) K.Karas. & K.Saito
Paphiopedilum aranianum Petchl.
Taxonomic Notes: This species is closely allied to P. parishii from Myanmar, Thailand and SW Yunnan, but differs in its lithophytic habit, glabrous inflorescences, bracts and ovary and in white dorsal sepal.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2acd; B2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2010-12-03
Assessor(s): Rankou, H., Averyanov, L. & Svengsuksa, B.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M.
Justification:

Global assessment: Endangered (EN). 

Paphiopedilum dianthum is rare and local with few disjunct fragmented subpopulations and a very restricted distribution in China, Lao PDR and Viet Nam.

The trend of the population is decreasing. The abundance of the species has significantly reduced during recent decades with a very high population reduction due to many threats especially habitat destruction, logging, fires, deforestation, ruthless collection for horticultural purposes, regional and international trade, trampling, recreation, ecological disturbance, tourism and infrastructure development.

The estimated area of occupancy is 50 km2 with five locations and a severely fragmented population. There is an estimated population reduction of 60-79% in recent decade (three generation lengths). There is an estimated continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and the quality of the habitats in all locations.

Therefore, Paphiopedilum dianthum is assessed as Endangered (EN).

History:
2004 Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Paphiopedilum dianthum occurs in few localities in Viet Nam (Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Hoa Binh, Lai Chau, Lao Cai, Son La provinces), China (southwest Guangxi, southwest Guizhou, southwest Yunnan) and central Lao PDR (Bolikhamxay province).

Paphiopedilum dianthum can be found between 550 and 2,300 m asl.

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 236,000 km2 and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 50 km2.

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov 2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009, Yuan et al. 2010).

Countries:
Native:
China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Viet Nam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

Paphiopedilum dianthum is rare and local endemic to Viet Nam, Lao PDR and China with few disjunctive localities and very restricted distribution in fragmented subpopulations. There are only few observed specimens in each known locality with at least 20 localities in Viet Nam and China respectively. There is only one known locality in Lao PDR with few hundred individuals, but they are always restricted to a very small area of less than 1 km2

Paphiopedilum dianthum abundance has been significantly reduced in recent decades with a high population reduction of 60-79% in the last three generations. The population density is low and the trend of the population is decreasing. The estimated number of mature individuals is less than 10,000. 

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov  2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009, Yuan et al. 2010).

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Paphiopedilum dianthum is a perennial rosulate terrestrial herb. It grows in coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved, evergreen, mossy, humid, semi-deciduous forests and thickets.

Paphiopedilum dianthum prefers moist well-drained soils, humus, mossy trees, steep stony, highly eroded, crystalline limestone and shaded limestone rocks cliffs. The species prefers shaded habitats in tropical climates associated with mountains. It flowers from July to November.

The maximum generation length is eight years.

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov 2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009, Yuan et al. 2010).

Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

Paphiopedilum dianthum is a popular ornamental plant and is extensively collected for commercial use for horticulture, domestic and international trade. Local people are engaged in collecting of this plant in the wild for the commercial traders.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Paphiopedilum dianthum is sensitive to the environment and is typically associated with a specific set of habitat conditions, such as rocky high altitude, particular nutrient availability, steep, mossy places and shaded habitats.

Paphiopedilum dianthum is under numerous threats including habitat fragmentation and degradation through the deterioration of the surrounding environments, deforestation, fires, logging, random cutting, soil erosion, exploitation for horticultural purposes, ruthless collection for regional and international trade, trampling, recreation and ecological disturbance,

Paphiopedilum dianthum is threatened more generally by climate change, drought, degradation of the habitat due mainly to tourism, leisure activities, urbanisation, infrastructure development, management activities, recreation activities with direct effects (e.g., destruction of plants) and indirect effects (e.g., alteration of habitat). In addition the intrinsic factors of the population, which are considered a threat to the species, are the limited distribution and low number of mature individuals.

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov 2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009, Yuan et al. 2010).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

All Paphiopedilum species are listed on Appendix I of CITES.

However, the following actions are recommended to protect Paphiopedilum dianthum:

- Field explorations are needed to find potential additional localities.

- Organization and appropriate management of protected areas.

- Propagation and repatriation of plants into native habitats

- Cultivated specimens should be used in the trade instead of wild plants as the species is easy to grow.

- Species based management and conservation is essential to ensure to protect the remaining limited number of individuals.

- Knowledge of the optimal growth conditions is required. Such information may help to develop effective ways to restore the natural habitat of the species

- Initiate long term community based conservation to protect the habitat and species.

- Protection of the habitat, especially from collection, trampling and deforestation.

- Fencing the vulnerable sites.

- Management of habitat to reduce competition for resources (i.e., light, water, nutrients).

 - Sympathetic management of isolated subpopulations.

- Monitoring programs are needed to track the status of existing subpopulations with respect to ongoing management practices.

- Learning about the mycorrhizal relationships of this species with the goal of establishing successful protocols for symbiotic ex situ propagation and cultivation.

- Further research on the life cycle and ecology of the species.

- Land protection and habitat diffuse management can be implemented to conserve habitat near or between occurrences.

- Raise public awareness.

- Protection of the living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species not to be picked or dug up.

- Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.

- Monitoring and surveillance of the existing subpopulations and sites.

- Estimate the population size and study the dynamics. 


Citation: Rankou, H., Averyanov, L. & Svengsuksa, B. 2015. Paphiopedilum dianthum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 August 2015.
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