Paphiopedilum adductum 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Orchidales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Paphiopedilum adductum Asher
Paphiopedilum anitum Golamco
Paphiopedilum adductum Asher var. anitum (Golamco) Koop.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd; B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-07-24
Assessor(s): Rankou, H.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M.
Contributor(s): Agoo, E.M.G., Cootes, J., Golamco Jr., A., de Vogel, E.F. & Tiu, D.A.
Global assessment: Critically Endangered (CR)
Paphiopedilum adductum is a rare and very local species with a distribution restricted to Mindanao in the Philippines. The trend of the population is decreasing, the number of mature individuals is low and the abundance of the species has been significantly reduced in recent decades due to many threats especially habitat degradation, human disturbance, trampling, deforestation, logging, slash-and-burn and ruthless collection for regional and international trade. The estimated extent of occurrence and estimated area of occupancy of the species are 10 km2 and 4 km2, respectively, with an estimated continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and the quality of habitats in the single location. The population has declined by 85% over the last three generations and is predicted to decline by a further 85% in the next three generations. Therefore, P. adductum is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Paphiopedilum adductum is endemic to Mindanao Island of the Philippines, found at high elevation between 1,250 and 1,350 m asl near Impasugong in Bukidnon province (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cootes 2001, Cribb 1987, Fessel and Balzer 2000, Koopowitz 2008). The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 10 km2 and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 4 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:4
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):1250
Upper elevation limit (metres):1350
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Paphiopedilum adductum is a rare and very local species with a very restricted distribution in one highly depleted location. The species abundance has been significantly reduced in recent decades with a high population reduction. The population density is very low and the trend of the population is decreasing. The number of mature individuals is unknown but low. The population has declined by 85% over the last three generations and is predicted to decline by a further 85% in the next three generations (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem et al. 1998, Cootes 2001, Fessel and Balzer 2000).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Paphiopedilum adductum grows as an epiphyte in leafy humus, in the subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It prefers mid-shaded habitats in tropical climates and flowers in early winter (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem et al. 1998, Cootes 2001, Fessel and Balzer 2000). The maximum generation length is eight years.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):7-8

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Paphiopedilum adductum is an ornamental plant in high demand and is extensively collected for commercial use for horticulture, domestic and international trade. Local people are engaged in collection of this plant from the wild for commercial traders (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Paphiopedilum adductum is sensitive to the environment and is typically associated with a specific set of habitat conditions, such as high altitude, particular nutrient availability and mid-shaded habitats. Paphiopedilum adductum is under numerous threats including habitat fragmentation and degradation due to human disturbance, trampling, deforestation, irregular fires, logging, random cutting, slash-and-burn, soil erosion, expansion of settlement areas, exploitation for horticultural purposes, ruthless collection for regional and international trade. The species is threatened more generally by climate change and the intrinsic factors of the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). All Paphiopedilum species are listed on Appendix I of CITES. However, the following actions are recommended to protect Paphiopedilum adductum:
  • Cultivated specimens should be used in the trade and market supply instead of wild plants.
  • Species based management and conservation is essential to ensure to protect the remaining limited number of individuals.
  • Initiate long term community based conservation to protect the habitat and species.
  • Protection of the habitat, especially from collection, trampling and deforestation.
  • Fencing the vulnerable sites and sympathetic management of isolated subpopulations.
  • Management of habitat to reduce competition for resources (i.e., light, water, nutrients).
  • Monitoring programs are needed to track the status of existing subpopulations with respect to ongoing management practices.
  • Land protection and habitat diffuse management can be implemented to conserve habitat near or between occurrences.
  • Raise public awareness.
  • Protection of the living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species to be picked or dug up.
  • Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.
  • Monitoring and surveillance of the existing subpopulations and sites.
  • Estimate the population size and study the dynamics.

Citation: Rankou, H. 2015. Paphiopedilum adductum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T46346A43317822. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
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