Cylicomorpha solmsii 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Violales Caricaceae

Scientific Name: Cylicomorpha solmsii
Species Authority: (Urb.) Urb.
Jacaratia solmsii Urb.
Taxonomic Source(s): Carvalho, F.A. 2013. e-Monograph of Caricaceae. Version 1, November 2013. [Database continuously updated]. Available at: (Accessed: 07 March 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-07-13
Assessor(s): Cheek, M.
Reviewer(s): Onana, J.-M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hilton-Taylor, C.
Assessed as Vulnerable in Cheek et al. (2004) when the species was thought to be endemic to Cameroon. However, now that it is known to occur in Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) and the Congo, the known range of the species has been considerably extended. This species is therefore now assessed as Near Threatened, it has a very large extent of occurrence, but the minimum area of occupancy of 116 km² is well below the 2,000 km² and unlikely to exceed that, there is continuing decline in parts of the range due to habitat loss from logging and expanding agriculture (it may even have been lost from parts of its range in Cameroon) but it is now known from more than ten locations.The species almost qualifies for a threatened listing under criterion B2ab(iii).
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species was previously thought to be endemic to Cameroon (Southwest Region: Mt Cameroon-Buea-Bulifambo two collections, Etome; Mbonge-Bakosso; Korup; Kumba (Barombi, three collections); Kupe-Bakossi (c. 15 collections); Northwest Region: Wum, Bu (three collections), Mujung (one collection); East Region: 80 km SSW Yokodouma (one collection)). This species is mainly restricted to the lower slopes of the Cameroon Highlands. The single record from the East Region from semi-deciduous forest with Ulmaceae-Sterculiaceae (Letouzey 12237) seems unlikely but the specimen has been verified as Cylicomorpha by Martin Cheek (pers. comm.) at Kew. Plants of this species were collected in 2007 and 2009 on Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) by Quentin Luke and there is also a collection from the Congo Bouquet - these combined greatly extend the known range of this species. The collection by Buckner 381 (Missouri data) from savanna in Central African Republic requires verification before it can be accepted, hence it is excluded from this assessment. In the absence of a specimen, M. Cheek has not included his own sight record from Yaoundé mentioned in Cheek et al. (2004).  There are also supposedly records from Nigeria, but these have not yet been located. Much work is required to determine the full range of this species.
Countries occurrence:
Cameroon; Congo; Equatorial Guinea (Bioko)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 116
Number of Locations: 14-15
Lower elevation limit (metres): 400
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1450
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Appears to be a fairly scarce species as it has a very scattered distribution range and is only found on hill tops. It is a very distinctive species and if it was common would have been collected more frequently.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: A distinctive tree which grows in lower submontane forest, usually; (400-)1,000-1,400 m.
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Forest clearance for agriculture and wood especially in the Bamenda Highlands area is a significant threat. It may now be extinct at Barombi, Kumba since no records have been found in nearly 100 years.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The demography of this taxon is not documented and requires study. Nyasoso at Mt Kupe would be a good base for such research, and as a centre for conservation of the species since a sizeable population exists on the main trail to the summit at 1,100 m alt. and other subpopulations occur elsewhere in Bakossi e.g. near Kodmin. A good population also exists at Nkom-Wum. In the Bakossi Mts, traditions attached to these trees are likely to help protect them. Verification of the Buckner specimen from Central African Republic is required, also its occurrence in Yaoundé needs to be confirmed.

Citation: Cheek, M. 2015. Cylicomorpha solmsii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T45439A3002906. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.
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