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Crax pinima

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AVES GALLIFORMES CRACIDAE

Scientific Name: Crax pinima
Species Authority: Pelzeln, 1870
Common Name(s):
English Belem Curassow
Taxonomic Notes: Crax fasciolata and C. pinima (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as C. fasciolata following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-07-24
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Lees, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Fisher, S., Harding, M., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
Justification:
This newly-split curassow inhabits the most deforested part of Amazonia, and is also targeted by hunters. A tiny captive population exists, but there are no confirmed records from the wild since 1978. Any remaining wild population must be extremely small, and is likely to still be declining. For these reasons the species is classified as Critically Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Crax pinima is restricted to Maranhão and Pará in the Belém area of endemism in north-east Amazonia, Brazil.  It is extinct around Belém, Pará (Novaes and Lima 1998), and may survive only in western Maranhão at Reserva Biológica do Gurupi and adjoining areas (Lees et al. 2013). The species was not found during extensive fieldwork around Paragominas in eastern Pará (A. Aleixo per F. Olmos in litt. 2003). During extensive sampling in the municipalities of Capitão Poço, Dom Eliseu, Paragominas, Santa Bárbara do Pará, Tailândia, and Tomé-Açu from 1998-2009, the only reports of the species came from local inhabitants who reported that the species persisted in very low densities in the Agropalma Group Forestal Reserves in Tailândia, where it is rarer than Mitu tuberosum, which is larger and sought-after by hunters (Portes et al. 2011). In western Maranhão it was seen in reasonable numbers in the forests along the Rio Pindaré in 1977. It is likely to be close to global extinction in the wild (Lees et al. 2013). In 2009 five individuals (three females, plus two males potentially of this species) were seized in trade and sent to a conservation breeding centre in Santa Catarina; one female and one male died in a landslide in 2010. Two further females were subsequently located at a breeding centre in Minas Gerais, giving a surviving known total of four females and one potential male in captivity (Laganaro 2013).
Countries:
Native:
Brazil
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The last confirmed record in the wild was made in 1978 although there are persistent rumours that the species may be present in Gurupi, and there are relatively recent reports from Tailândia. If this is true it is still unlikely that more than 20-30 individuals exist if its not already extinct (A. Lees in litt. 2014).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits humid, semi-deciduous and gallery forests, and is often recorded in woodland edges (del Hoyo 1994).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The expansion of agribusiness and logging has currently made the Belém center of endemism the most deforested sector of Amazonia, with only a few large and well-preserved forest tracts. Even within reserves such as Gurupi habitat destruction has been significant as illegal logging, cultivation and grazing have continued unchallenged. Hunting is likely to represent a significant additional threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Conservation  and research actions underway
The species may still occur in Gurupi Biological Reserve, and there are reports from the Agropalma Group Forestal Reserves. A tiny captive population exists.

Conservation and research actions proposed

Continue to search potentially suitable remaining habitats for the species, and follow up any reports of its persistence in the wild. Consider genetic analysis on the captive male to confirm that it is C. pinima. Maintain and expand the tiny captive population with a view to eventual reintroduction if appropriate. Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Citation: BirdLife International 2014. Crax pinima. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 November 2014.
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