|Scientific Name:||Rhizoprionodon lalandii|
|Species Authority:||(Müller & Henle, 1839)|
Carcharias lalandii Müller & Henle, 1839
|Taxonomic Notes:||The specific name has been misspelled and consistently used in the literature as R. lalandei, but the original spelling R. lalandii should be retained (Eschmeyer 1998). Although Müller and Henle (1839) cited Valenciennes as the source of the name, they were responsible for the description, and are therefore regarded as the authorities of the species (Eschmeyer 1998).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Rosa, R.S., Gadig, O.B.F., Santos Motta, F. & Namora, R.C.|
|Reviewer/s:||Kyne, P.M., Cavanagh, R.D. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)|
A tropical inshore species widely distributed in the Western Atlantic from Panama to southern Brazil. It is common in parts of its distribution. Current population trends through much of its range are uncertain because of lack of records. It is therefore assessed as Data Deficient, although quantitative data on catches and abundance may in future demonstrate this species to be threatened in many parts of its range, where intensive coastal fisheries are occurring. Other human factors, particularly water pollution, probably impact this species and its habitat in heavily populated areas. The species is known to be decreasing through overfishing in northern Brazil. It used to be one of the most abundant elasmobranchs in coastal fisheries in Maranhão, but nowadays is rarely seen there. Increased mortality of all age classes in coastal fisheries, such as occurs off São Paulo, likely threatens heavily exploited populations of this species. The large proportion of neonates and juveniles in catches here further compromises recruitment to the adult population. The species is therefore assessed as Vulnerable in Brazil (although the acquisition of quantitative data may show it to be at a higher level of threat) due to continuing intensive coastal fishing throughout its range.
|Range Description:||Information obtained from sampling off the coastal state of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1996 to 2002, such as the presence of gravid females, neonates and juveniles, indicates that R. lalandii use the area as a primary and secondary nursery ground, with subadults leaving the area as they approach maturity (Motta 2001). Among the 12,406 examined sharks in this period, 7,442 (60.01%) were R. lalandii (Motta, F.S, Gadig, O.B.F., Namora, R.C. unpubl. data). The differences in maturity sizes observed along the Brazilian coast suggest the existence of at least two different stocks of R. lalandii in the area (Motta, F.S, Gadig, O.B.F., Namora, R.C. unpubl. data).|
Native:Aruba; Brazil (Amapá, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Maranhão, Pará, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe); Colombia; French Guiana; Guyana; Panama; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The Brazilian Sharpnose Shark is a tropical inshore species of the continental shelf, occurring at depths of 3 to 70 m (Compagno 1984, Gadig 1994, Cervigón and Alcalá 1999, FishBase). It is abundant from Venezuela to northern Brazil and in southern Brazil, but in northeastern Brazil, from Ceará to Bahia States, it is less common, possibly replaced by the congeneric R. porosus.
Size at maturity previously reported as 45 to 50 cm total length (TL) for males (Compagno 1984). However, size at maturity shows variation along the Brazilian coast, as follows: 52 cm TL (males) and 56 cm TL (females) on the northern coast (Lessa 1988), and 58 to 60 cm TL (males) and 63 to 65 cm TL (females) on the southeastern coast (Ferreira 1988, Motta 2001).
Placental viviparous species with litters of 1 to 5 pups (Gadig 1994, Lessa 1998, Motta 2001). Size at birth is 33 to 34 cm TL (Compagno 1984). Maximum size recorded is 78.5 cm TL (males) and 80 cm TL (females) (Namora 2003).
The diet includes mainly small teleost fishes (Sciaenidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae), and is complemented by squid (Loliginidae) and shrimps (Penaeidae) (Compagno 1984, Silva 1997, Namora 2003). In southeastern Brazil, the diet showed sexual, seasonal and ontogenetic variation (Namora 2003).
Major threats include overfishing in coastal artisanal fisheries, mainly with gillnets, throughout most of its range. The species used to be one of the most abundant elasmobranch species in gillnet catches in Maranhão State, Brazil, but today it is rarely caught (Lessa 1998, R.P.T. Lessa, pers. obs.). The species is commonly taken in artisanal gillnet fisheries in São Paulo State, Brazil, corresponding to nearly 60% of the total captured shark numbers at Itanhaém Municipality (Motta 2001, Gadig et al. 2002). A large proportion of the captured individuals (nearly 70%) in this and other localities include neonates and juveniles (Motta 2001, F.S. Motta, O.B.F. Gadig and R.C. Namora, unpubl. data). In heavily populated areas, the species also suffers from effects of marine pollution. On the São Paulo coast, the species has been shown to be subject to damage from plastic debris with three specimens found with plastic collars around the head or gill region (Sazima et al. 2002).
Information is urgently required from other countries within its range.
The flesh of this species is used for food, however the fins are generally not utilised due to their small size.
|Conservation Actions:||Protection of coastal habitats, including pollution control and establishment of marine reserves is required. Regulation and management of artisanal coastal fisheries is recommended, including delimitation of fishing areas and periods, limitation of gillnet extension and mesh sizes (minimum and maximum), and mandatory release of live neonate and juvenile specimens.|
|Citation:||Rosa, R.S., Gadig, O.B.F., Santos Motta, F. & Namora, R.C. 2004. Rhizoprionodon lalandii. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 March 2014.|
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