|Scientific Name:||Urotrygon microphthalmum|
|Species Authority:||Delsman, 1941|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rosa, R.S. (SSG South America Regional Workshop, June 2003)|
|Reviewer(s):||Musick, J.A., Kyne, P.M., Cavanagh, R.D. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)|
A small, tropical, coastal stingray from the Western Atlantic occurring from Venezuela to northern Brazil in shallow waters (common 25 m). Although no population studies are currently available, the species is apparently not threatened due to its small size (approximately 25 cm total length (TL), 13 cm disc width) and abundance. It is common in the Orinoco River Delta of Venezuela, is abundant off Maranhão State, Brazil and is commonly captured in beach seining along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Regulations should be introduced to ensure that individuals taken as bycatch are released.
|Range Description:||It is common in the Orinoco River Delta of Venezuela (Cervigón and Alcalá 1999), is abundant off Maranhão State, Brazil (R. Lessa, pers. comm., Menni and Stehmann 2000) and is commonly captured in beach seining along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil (R. S. Rosa per. obs.).|
Native:Brazil (Amazonas, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraíba); French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
A coastal stingray found in tropical waters of the continental shelf. Reported in depths of 9 to 22 m (FishBase) and 8 to 25 m (Lessa 1997). In Paraíba, Brazil it is usually captured in shallower water (less than 2 m) with beach seines. It occurs on sandy or muddy bottoms, usually close to river mouths.
Maximum reported size is 23.4 cm TL (Cervigón and Alcalá 1999) or 11.8 cm disc width (DW) (FishBase). However, the largest measured female from Paraíba, Brazil was 13.3 cm DW and 25.4 cm TL; largest measured male was 11.5 cm DW and 22.5 cm TL (R.S. Rosa, pers. obs.).
Reproduction is viviparous. Females with 13 cm DW have one or two fully developed embryos; a male with 9 cm DW has rigid claspers (R.S. Rosa, pers. obs).
|Major Threat(s):||Due to its small size, the species is not taken as food. It could be affected by incidental capture in coastal fisheries, particularly beach seining and shrimp trawling, and indirectly, by the impacts on the coastal zone, including urban development, pollution and dredging, particularly at the mouth of estuaries.|
|Conservation Actions:||Conservation measures should include: habitat protection and pollution control in estuaries and adjacent coastal areas; regulation of beach seining and shrimp trawling fisheries; bycatch control, with mandatory release of live by-caught individuals.|
|Citation:||Rosa, R.S. (SSG South America Regional Workshop, June 2003) 2004. Urotrygon microphthalmum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.|
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