|Scientific Name:||Chiropotes chiropotes|
|Species Authority:||(Humboldt, 1811)|
Chiropotes israelita Spix, 1823
|Taxonomic Notes:||Hershkovitz (1985) revised the genus Chiropotes and recognized two species, Chiropotes albinasus and Chiropotes satanas, the second containing three subspecies (Chiropotes s. satanas, Chiropotes s. chiropotes and Chiropotes s. utahicki). Based on results of analyses of morphological, morphometric and molecular data, Silva Jr. and Figueiredo (2002) raised the three subspecies to species level, and divided the populations occurring on either side of the rio Branco into two distinct taxa. They proposed a taxonomic arrangement with five species: Chiropotes albinasus, Chiropotes satanas, Chiropotes utahickae, Chiropotes chiropotes and Chiropotes sagulatus Traill, 1821, the latter representing the eastern form of C. chiropotes, which occurs to the east of the rio Branco, in Brazil, Suriname and the Guianas.
In 2003, Bonvicino and colleagues confirmed the elevation of the subspecies, and based on specimens collected from tributaries north-east of the rio Negro (west of the rio Branco), described what they considered to be a new form of Chiropotes, which they referred to as Chiropotes israelita Spix, 1823. However, Silva Jr. (pers. comm.) claims this form is not a new species, but is in fact, the form from Venezuela, the type locality for which is upper Rio Orinoco south of the Cataratas, Amazonas (Cabrera, 1961) and the valid name is Chiropotes chiropotes. The morphological characters (particularly tawny-olive to buffy-brown dorsal pelage) observed by Bonvicino et al. (2003) were considered new possibly because Hershkovitz (1985) may have inadvertently missed the fact that two forms existed north of the Amazon.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Veiga, L.M., Silva Jr., J.S., Mittermeier, R.A. & Boubli, J.-P.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern as the species has a reasonably wide range in a relatively undisturbed area. Although there is some hunting, this not likely to be resulting in a decline sufficient to warrant listing in a threatened category.
|Range Description:||Occurs north of the Amazon throughout the Guianas, southern and central Venezuela and northern Brazil. Limited to the south by the Amazon River, and to the west by the Rio Negro in Brazil and Orinoco in Venezuela. It extends north as far as the west bank of Lago Guri in Venezuela, north of the confluence of the Ríos Paragua and Caroni, its distribution here being limited by the increasing impact of drier vegetation (Hershkovitz 1985), and its eastern boundary in Venezuela appears to be the left bank of the Caroní. It is largely absent from western Guyana, occurring to the east of the Rio Essequibo. In Suriname, it is absent from the coastal plain, while in French Guiana it is only found in the extreme south (approximately 200 km inland). In eastern Brazil, it occurs throughout the State of Amapá and is possibly only absent from wetter regions along the coast.
Although Cacajao and Chiropotes are mutually exclusive, mixed groups of Cacajao hosomi and Chiropotes chiropotes in the region of the Pico da Neblina (Boubli 2002).
Native:Brazil; French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no information on the population status of this species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Inhabits terra firme forests (including high forest, savanna forest, and mora forests), and mixed semi-deciduous forest (Mittermeier 1977; Mittermeier and Coimbra-Filho 1977; van Roosmalen et al. 1981; Kinzey and Norconk 1993; Norconk et al. 1996, 2003; Peetz 2001).
Like other bearded saki species, this species forms large, multi-male, multi-female groups (44 members) (Norconk et al. 2003), members of which travel together but subdivide during foraging (van Roosmalen et al. 1981; Frazão 1992). In Suriname, reproduction was seasonal, with most births occurring in the rainy season or beginning of the dry season (van Roosmalen et al. 1981; Peetz 2001).
The species is highly frugivorous, the diet being comprised principally of fruit and seeds (Mittermeier 1977; van Roosmalen et al. 1981; Kinzey and Norconk 1990, 1993; Frazão 1992; Peetz 2001), supplemented with flowers and non-reproductive plant parts as well as arthropods (Ayres and Nessimian 1982; Mittermeier et al. 1983; Frazão 1991; Kinzey and Norconk 1993; Peetz 2001). Peetz (2001) recorded C. chiropotes eating over 100 species of plant.
Ayres (1981) registered day ranges of 1.3 km for a group in a small fragment (10 ha) near Manaus but a group in an area of continuous forest ranged over much larger areas, travelling as much as 6 km in one day (Frazão 1992). In Suriname, van Roosmalen et al. (1988) estimated ranges of 2.5 km and home ranges up to 250 ha. Peetz (2001) recorded an average day range of 1.6 km.
|Major Threat(s):||There are currently no major threats, although localized hunting for food takes place around Indian and bush negro villages.|
Occurs in numerous protected areas, including the Central Suriname Nature Reserve (1,600,000 ha), the Sipaliwini Nature Reserve, and the Wai-wai Community Owned Conservation Area.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.
|Citation:||Veiga, L.M., Silva Jr., J.S., Mittermeier, R.A. & Boubli, J.-P. 2008. Chiropotes chiropotes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.|
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