|Scientific Name:||Sapajus robustus|
|Species Authority:||(Kuhl, 1820)|
Cebus apella ssp. robustus Kuhl, 1820
Cebus robustus Kuhl, 1820
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Lynch Alfaro, J.W., Silva, J.S. and Rylands, A.B. 2012. How different are robust and gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An argument for the use of Sapajus and Cebus. American Journal of Primatology 74(4): 273–286.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Silva Jr (2001, 2002) argued that the tufted capuchins and the untufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) are so distinct in their morphology that they should be considered separate genera. Cebus Erxleben, 1777 for the untufted group, and Sapajus Kerr, 1792 is the name available for the tufted capuchins.
Taxonomy of the tufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) follows Silva Jr (2001), who did not recognize any subspecific forms. Groves (2001, 2005) presented an alternative taxonomy for the tufted capuchins as follows: C. apella apella (Linnaeus, 1758); C. apella fatuellus (Linnaeus, 1766); C. apella macrocephalus Spix, 1823; C. apella peruanus Thomas, 1901; C. apella tocantinus Lönnberg, 1939; C. apella ?margaritae Hollister, 1914; C. libidinosus libidinosus Spix, 1823; C. libidinosus pallidus Gray, 1866; C. libidinosus paraguayanus Fischer, 1829; C. libidinosus juruanus Lönnberg, 1939; C. nigritus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809); C. nigritus robustus Kuhl, 1820; C. nigritus cucullatus Spix, 1823; C. xanthosternos Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (see Fragaszy et al. 2004; Rylands et al. 2005).
Groves (2001) listed three subspecific forms for C. nigritus: C. nigritus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809); C. nigritus robustus Kuhl, 1820, considered a distinct species by Silva Jr. (2001); and C. nigritus cucullatus Spix, 1823, considered a junior synonym of C. nigritus by Silva Jr. (2001).
The species was transferred to Sapajus (Lynch Alfaro et al. 2012).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2c ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Kierulff, M.C.M., Mendes, S.L. & Rylands, A.B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B.|
This species is listed as Endangered due to a severe and ongoing population decline inferred from habitat loss. Over the past three generations (48 years), it is estimated that the species has undergone a 50% decline due primarily to habitat loss through conversion to agriculture.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Sapajus robustus occurs from the Rio Jequitinhonha in southern Bahia and northern Minas Gerais, south through Espírito Santo to the Rio Doce (Rylands et al. 1988; Oliver and Santos 1991). The western-most locality is in the state of Minas Gerais is given by Pinto (1941), who collected specimens from the headwaters of the Rio Pissarão, in a mountainous region north of the Rio Piracicaba, not far from the town of Presidente Vargas. It is possible that the Serra do Espinhaço of Minas Gerais, running north-south and defining the transition from the Atlantic forest to bush savanna (cerrado) in the west, marks the western limits of the distribution of this form. Martins (2005) surveyed the entire range of Sapajus robustus and identified the following range limits: North-east – Rio Jequitinhonha river in Bahia and Minas Gerais; North-west and west – Rio Jequitinhonha in Minas Gerais; South-west – Rio Suaçuí Grande and the Serra do Espinhaço; South-east – Rio Doce in Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. Martins (2005) identified an area of intergradation with Sapajus nigritus the rios Santo Antônio and Suaçuí Grande.|
Native:Brazil (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Chiarello (1999) obtained encounter rates of 2.47-0.6 sighting/10 km in seven sites in northern Espírito Santo, Brazil.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Tropical lowland and submontane forest in the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Arboreal quadripeds, they are typically found in the lower to mid-canopy and understory (Freese and Oppenheimer 1981; Fragaszy et al. 2004; Jack 2007). Also dry, semi-deciduous forests in the western part of its range in Minas Gerais.|
Capuchins are frugivores-insectivores, including a wide variety of fruits, seeds and arthropods, frogs, nestlings and even small mammals in their diet, supplemented by stems, flowers and leaves. They are extractive, manipulative foragers. Males disperse. Both sexes take up linear hierarchies, the top-ranking male being dominant to the top-ranking female. Subordinate males are often peripheral (Fragaszy et al. 2004). No field studies have been carried out examining particularly the behaviour and ecology of this species.
|Major Threat(s):||This species has a restricted range in the Atlantic forest in the states of Bahia (southern), eastern Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, south of the Rio Jequitinhonha and north of the Rio Doce. They are hunted, and the forests within their range have been destroyed for coffee, eucalyptus and pine plantations (cotton in the 19th century), other agricultural crops, and for cattle pasture.|
Occurs in the following protected areas in Brazil:
Linhares Forest Reserve (21,787 ha) (Mendes 1991; Chiarello 1999, 2003)
Sooretama Biological Reserve (27,943 ha) (Mendes 1991; Chiarello 1999, 2003)
State Biological Reserve Mata dos Ausentes (490 ha) (Martins 2005)
State Ecological Station Acauã (5,196 ha) (Martins 2005)
An International Committee for the Conservation and Management for the Atlantic forest capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos and S. robustus, was created in 1992 by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment (IBAMA) to promote field studies and organize a captive population from the numerous individuals kept as pets. It languished, but was resuscitated in 2002 (Santos and Lernould 1993; Baker and Kierulff 2002), and took in a Working Group created in 2003 for Barbara Brown’s Titi Monkey (Callicebus barbarabrownae) and Coimbra-Filho’s Titi Monkey (C. coimbrai) (both also occurring in north-eastern Brazil).
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.
|Citation:||Kierulff, M.C.M., Mendes, S.L. & Rylands, A.B. 2015. Sapajus robustus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T42697A70614762.Downloaded on 25 February 2017.|
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