|Scientific Name:||Saguinus niger|
|Species Authority:||(É. Geoffroy, 1803)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Hershkovitz (1977) and Eisenberg (1989) listed the Black-handed Tamarin as a subspecies of Saguinus midas. It is now considered to be a distinct species (Rylands et al. 1993, 2000; Groves 2001, 2005).
Vallinoto et al. (2006) indicated that the Rio Tocantins may act as a barrier to gene flow for Saguinus niger. This was presaged in a molecular genetic analysis by Tagliaro et al. (2005). The form described as Mystax ursulus umbratus Thomas, 1922, from Cametá, Rio Tocantins, Pará, listed by Groves (2001, 2005) as a junior synonym of S. niger, and by Hershkovitz (1977) as a junior synonym of S. midas niger, may in this case be considered a distinct geographical race or species (J. de Sousa e Silva Jr. pers. comm., April 2007).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Rylands, A.B. & Mittermeier, R.A.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Vulnerable as there is reason to believe the species has experienced a decline exceeding 30% over the past 18 years (three generations) due primarily to habitat loss.
|Range Description:||The Black-handed Tamarin occurs in the state of Pará, Brazil, south of the Rio Amazonas, east of the Rio Xingú and Rio Fresco, to the lower Rio Araguaia, south as far as the region of Santana de Araguaia (Napier 1976; Hershkovitz 1977). Hershkovitz (1977) limited it to the left bank of the Rio Gurupí, but Johns (1986) censused S. niger in the Gurupí Forest Reserve on the right bank of the river. It in fact extends to the east of the Rio Mearim, occurring as such in the interfluvium of the rios Mearim and Itapecuru, in the state of Maranhão, but the exact eastern limit is not known (Ferrari and Lopes 1990, 1996; J. S. Silva Jr. pers. comm, 2008). Callithrix jacchus occurs along the west (left) bank of the Rio Parnaíba, east of the Rio Itapecuru. The southernmost locality registered by Hershkovitz (1977) is Gradaús, Rio Fresco. S. niger also occurs in the western, forested two-thirds of the Island of Marajó in the Rio Amazonas estuary (Ferrari and Lopes 1996).|
Native:Brazil (Maranhão, Pará)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Ferrari and Lopes (1996) estimated population densities of S. niger at four localities:
Tailândia: 10.4 individiuals/km (heavily hunted)
Rio Capim: 23.3 individuals/km²
Irituia: 19.0 individuals/km²
Gurupi Biological Reserve: 12.7 individuals/km².
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The Black-handed Tamarin occurs in Amazonian lowland, seasonally flooded forest, pre-montane forest on the Brazilian Sheild, remnant forests or fringe patches and secondary forest (Snowdon and Soini 1988; Lopes and Ferari 1996).
Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects). Veracini (2002) has studied the diet and feeding behavior of Saguinus niger at the Ferreira Pena Research Station at Caxiuanã, Pará. Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species is a notable component of the diet. The dentition of the tamarins (Saguinus and Leontopithecus) does not provide for gouging and they eat gums only when readily available.
Tamarins live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals, but usually 2-8. Generally, only one female per group breeds during a particular breeding season. One Saguinus niger group studied by Veracini (2002) was found defend a home ranges of 35 ha (Palacios et al. 2004). Mottled-face Tamarins travel and spend most of their time in the lower layers and understorey of the forest up to 10 m above the ground.
Tamarins are monomorphic - exhibiting only minor differences in body and canine size.
Adult male H&B 23.5 cm, TL 37.6 cm (Hershkovitz 1977)
Adult female H&B 22.8 cm, TL 37.8 cm (Hershkovitz 1977).
|Major Threat(s):||The range of this species overlaps one of the fastest developing regions in the Brazilian Amazon. The current destruction of the Gurupí Biological Reserve exemplifies the devastation occurring in the region.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species occurs in several protected areas, including Gurupí Biological Reserve (341,650 ha), Tapirapé Biological Reserve (103,000 ha), and Caxiuanã Nationla Forest (200,000 ha). It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.|
|Citation:||Rylands, A.B. & Mittermeier, R.A. 2008. Saguinus niger. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 April 2014.|
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