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Tsuga dumosa 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Tsuga dumosa (D.Don) Eichler
Common Name(s):
English Himalayan Hemlock
Synonym(s):
Pinus dumosa D.Don
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-16
Assessor(s): Yang, Y., Luscombe, D & Rushforth, K.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.
Justification:
A widespread and very common species, which although exploited in places, is not undergone a significant decline and is hence listed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Occurs across the Himalayas: China: mountains of SE Xizang [Tibet], NW Yunnan and SW Sichuan; N Myanmar [Burma]; N Viet Nam (mainly Fan Si Pan Mtn. in Lao Cai Prov., possibly in Yen Bai Prov.)
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Bhutan; China (Sichuan, Tibet [or Xizang], Yunnan); India (Assam, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh); Myanmar (Myanmar (mainland)); Nepal; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:3400
Lower elevation limit (metres):1700
Upper elevation limit (metres):3500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a very widespread and abundant species. It is only scarce in the Vietnamese part of its range and also in part of the Chinese range. The size of the population of T. dumosa in Viet Nam is unknown, at each of the localities where it has been found, it is probable that this species also occurs on surrounding ridges and peaks but it does not appear to be as frequent as Pseudotsuga. The majority of the known populations have been subject illegal logging and there are few mature trees remaining in these localities. Some sites show recent regeneration but as so little is known about its regenerative capacity, it is uncertain if the young trees will survive to maturity. At a national level, the Vietnamese populations probably meet the criteria for Vulnerable. Further field work may result in an upgrading to the category of endangered. The Vietnamese populations may also be important as they represent the most southern distribution of this genus in Asia, they may be a distinct genetic provenance.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Tsuga dumosa occurs in the Himalaya in a belt between 2,600 m and 3,200 m a.s.l., in a wide range of habitats, usually on alpine lithosols. In China it is most common between 2,200 m and 2,800 m a.s.l., but it occurs as low as 1,700 m and up to 3,500 m a.s.l. in Sichuan and Yunnan. The climate is moist monsoon, with abundant precipitation, wettest in the eastern Himalayas and Upper Burma, where it can receive up to 10,000 mm rain per year. It is an almost constant companion of conifers, e.g. Abies spp., Picea spp.; Cedrus deodara in the western Himalayas, and Larix griffithii in the eastern Himalayas; it is especially abundant on slopes with a northerly exposure, where it is the most shade tolerant tree.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Generation Length (years):20-25

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Himalayan Hemlock is a timber tree of some importance locally, but considered by Indian foresters to be inferior to several other Himalayan conifers. Its wood can be split into shingles and together with the bark these are traditionally used in the roofing of wooden houses. The foliage is sometimes burnt as incense in Buddhist religious shrines. This species has been introduced in Europe (England) in 1838, but is not common in cultivation; sometimes trees are listed under its synonym T. yunnanensis when coming from the Chinese part of its range. Its planting is usually limited to arboreta and botanic gardens with living collections of conifers in regions with mild winters and abundant rainfall.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is threatened by exploitation in parts of its range (e.g. in Viet Nam and parts of China), but it has such a wide range and is so abundant that this is not considered to pose a major threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: In Viet Nam this species is known to occur in Hoang Lien National Park, and it probably occurs in many other protected areas across its extensive distribution range.

Citation: Yang, Y., Luscombe, D & Rushforth, K. 2013. Tsuga dumosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42434A2979998. . Downloaded on 23 January 2018.
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