|Scientific Name:||Pinus radiata|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Lower Risk/conservation dependent ver 2.3|
|Assessor/s:||Conifer Specialist Group|
|Range Description:||The typical variety of Monterey Pine occurs along the coast of California in three disjunct populations in San Mateo and Santa Cruz counties, Monterey County, and San Luis Obispo County. Pinus radiata var. binata occurs on Guadalupe and Cedros islands, Mexico. Although trees on these islands differ in morphology from those in the United States, they have been shown to be most closely related to P. radiata.
Monterey Pine is cultivated for timber in Maui, Hawaii. It is also widely planted for timber in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Chile, Spain, and the British Isles.
Native:Mexico (Baja California, Guadalupe I.); United States (California)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Monterey Pine is part of the coastal closed-cone coniferous woodland. This habitat is strongly influenced by its proximity to the Pacific Ocean from which the cold waters of southward-flowing currents result in high humidity, low temperatures, and summer fogs. The pine is seldom found more than 11 km from the sea.
Fire is a major influence affecting the extent and makeup of Monterey pine stands. Fire is frequent, sometimes of natural causes, often accidental, and sometimes deliberately set. Graziers at Cambria, for example, burned the woods to obtain more grass. At Año Nuevo, frequent fires have helped to maintain the pine forest. Without fire, the taller and longer-lived coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) would usurp land occupied by pines.
The three remaining native stands of var. radiata are infected and under threat of extinction from pitch canker, a fungal disease native to the southeast United States and found (in 1986) to have been introduced to California. When trees begin to die of the disease, they attract bark beetles which provide a pathway for infection of other trees. In some stands, 80-90% of trees are infected.
All the mainland stands have been subject to change because undisturbed stands are scarce; nearly all have been grazed, burned, or logged. The stands on Guadalupe Island have been severely impacted by grazing from feral goats, while the stands on Cedros Island appear to be largely secure.
|Citation:||Conifer Specialist Group 1998. Pinus radiata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 May 2013.|
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