Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Pinus quadrifolia
Species Authority: Parl. ex Sudw.
Common Name(s):
English Parry Pinyon, Nut Pine
Spanish Piñon
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-06-23
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Perez de la Rosa, J., Stritch, L. & Thomas, P.
Pinus quadrifolia's extent of occurrence, while not large, falls outside the threshold of a threatened category. Depending on the chosen grid width, here taken as 5 km for 51 mapped localities = 1,150 km² this species falls within the area of occupancy limit for Vulerable (2,000 km²) but there is no evidence of decline. The species is not a timber tree and is adapted to fires that occur regularly in the region. On this basis it is assessed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1998 Rare (R)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Recorded from USA: California (Riverside and San Diego Co.); and Mexico: Baja California Norte.
Countries occurrence:
Mexico (Baja California); United States (California)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 1150
Number of Locations: 10
Lower elevation limit (metres): 900
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2700
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is known from numerous localities where is can range from a few individual trees to thousands.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: No
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The altitudinal range of Pinus quadrifolia is 900-2,400(-2,700) m a.s.l. It grows between the semi-desert and the chaparral scrub zones (and partly within the latter) and the mixed coniferous forest on the highest parts of the mountains. It is more widely distributed and often more common than P. monophylla in the Pinyon-Juniper woodland, but occurs often with it. Pinus jeffreyi is the only other pine with which it occurs in Mexico. Juniperus californica and Quercus turbinella are common; in the chaparral zone many shrubs, e.g. Adenostoma, Ceanothus, Artemisia, Cercocarpus, Rhus, Eriodictyon, Arctostaphylos, and Yucca, dominate. Most of these mountains are granitic, but in the south of the ranges more volcanic rock is found. Pinus quadrifolia often grows in cracks among boulders. Annual precipitation is a moderate 300-500 mm, but it is very variable; most of it comes during winter cyclonic storms and there is a long dry season from spring through summer. Phenology: pollen dispersal is in March-April.
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: No
Generation Length (years): 40

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is no use of this species for timber. It is locally used for firewood. The seeds are edible and are harvested to be sold in local markets. Resin may be tapped on a small scale as well. It is not in cultivation outside a few botanic gardens and other collections.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No specific threats have been identified for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in several protected areas on either side of the Mexico-USA border.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus quadrifolia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42407A2977910. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided