|Scientific Name:||Pinus pumila|
|Species Authority:||(Pall.) Regel|
Pinus cembra L. variety pygmaea Loudon
Pinus cembrea L. variety pumila Pall.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
Pinus pumila has one of the most extensive ranges of all species, and has a habit (shrubby) and ecology that make it highly unlikely to go extinct in the foreseeable future. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Has a wide occurrence being recorded from N Mongolia; Russian Federation: E Siberia, Russian Far East (including islands); China: Inner Mongolia, Manchuria (scattered); North & South Korea; and Japan: Hokkaido, N Honshu.|
Native:China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol); Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Mongolia; Russian Federation (Amur, Buryatiya, Chita, Irkutsk, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Kuril Is., Magadan, Primoryi, Sakhalin, Yakutiya)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is thought to be stable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a pine well adapted to the extreme climate which prevails above the line of forests of Pinus sylvestris in the southern part of its range, while it replaces Larix gmelinii or birch forests at high altitude in the northern regions. It can be found scattered in the understorey of these forests, too. Especially on exposed mountain slopes close to the summer snowline it forms extensive, dense thickets. In Japan the Dwarf Siberian Pine occurs from 1,400 m to 3,200 m a.s.l., but on the Kamchatka Peninsula it is found from sea level up to 1,200 m in favourable localities. Its seeds are distributed by birds in the family Corvidae.|
|Use and Trade:||Dwarf Siberian Pine is of little economic value. Its wood is of small, contorted size and shape and only good for firewood in a region where there is plenty of this commodity of better quality. The seeds are edible, but difficult to harvest and mostly left to birds, rodents and bears. In horticulture it is rarely met with and mostly confined to botanic gardens and arboreta, although in Russia and northern Japan it is also planted in some parks, road reservations and other amenity spaces. It should be a good species for rock gardens in countries with cold winters|
|Major Threat(s):||No specific threats have been identified for this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is known from many protected areas throughout its extensive range; it also occurs in many remote, undisturbed areas.|
|Citation:||Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus pumila. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 December 2014.|
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