Pinus massoniana


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Pinus massoniana
Species Authority: Lamb.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Masson's Pine, Chinese Red Pine

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-01-31
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P.
Despite the fact that one of its two varieties has been assessed as Critically Endangered, the species as a whole, being so common and widespread, remains Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Recorded from south central and SE China (15 provinces), and Taiwan, Province of China.
China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang); Taiwan, Province of China
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population overall is common and stable.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Pinus massoniana is a pine which grows as well in the lowlands as in the highlands, and occurs from a few meters to an altitude of about 2,000 m a.s.l. Because of this, it occurs in greatly varying climatological conditions, from the moist lowland river valleys to the dry mountain plateaus of the interior parts of China. In general, it is a conifer inhabiting a region with a warm temperate climate. Extensive stands of this pine occur in several areas where cultivation of the land has been marginal, i.e. in hilly or rocky terrains and on the poorer acidic soils of mountain slopes and ridges. This species is not found in limestone formations. It occurs often in mixed light forest or woodland with angiosperms such as Lithocarpus and Quercus (Fagaceae) and some other conifers, e.g. Keteleeria davidiana and Cunninghamia lanceolata. It is often a pioneer species invading abandoned agricultural fields or secondary vegetation in forest clearings.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Masson's Pine is one of the most important conifer trees in China. It is fast growing and widely used in plantations grown for wood, pulp, resin and other products. The wood is of good quality and used for construction as well as the pulp and wood fibre industries. Natural stands, especially old growth, provide most of the sawn timber, while fast growing plantations are mostly converted into pulpwood. Many uses are given to the sawn timber, ranging from poles, railway sleepers and heavy or light construction and plywood to boxes, furniture, veneers, cooperage, tool handles, wood carving, and musical instruments. Pine resin of this species forms the basis for a variety of chemical products, the so-called naval stores industry. China is now the world's leading producer of gum resin, both for domestic consumption and export, and Masson's Pine is the major provider of this, supplying 95% of China's oleoresin and employing 200,000 workers (Langenheim 2003). Oil is extracted from the needles, and this and other parts of the tree are extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine. Edible mushrooms are cultivated on bedlogs of this pine laid out in limestone caves. Masson's Pine is not widely planted outside China, and is rather uncommon as an amenity tree in regions with a mild climate.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No specific threats have been identified for this species overall, although var. hainanensis is impacted by logging and general deforestation.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is present in a number of protected areas.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus massoniana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 03 September 2015.
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