|Scientific Name:||Pinus hartwegii|
Pinus donnell-smithii Mast.
Pinus rudis Endl.
|Taxonomic Notes:||In some key reference works on Central American pines (e.g. Perry 1991), Pinus rudis Endl and Pinus donnell-smithii Mast are treated as distinct species. They are included here with Pinus hartwegii.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Thomas, P. & Perez de la Rosa, J.|
This species has a very large extent of occurrence and is mostly confined to the highest altitude pine forests, where its exploitation is limited. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
Recorded from Mexico: in Chihuahua (Cerro Mohinora), S Coahuila, S Nuevo León, Durango, SW Tamaulipas, Jalisco (Nevado de Colima), Michoacán, México, Morelos, Hidalgo, Distrito Federal, Tlaxcala, Puebla, W Veracruz, Guerrero (Cerro Teotepec and vicinity), Oaxaca and Chiapas; in Guatemala in most of the SW highlands; in Honduras on several isolated mountain summits; and reported from the extreme N of El Salvador, but not confirmed.
Native:Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||May form large, monotypic forests. The population trend is stable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Pinus hartwegii is the typical high altitude pine of Mexico and Guatemala, where it often forms extensive, monotypic pine forests up to the tree line on high, isolated volcanoes or summits of mountain ranges. In Honduras it is rare, of limited extent and usually found with Abies guatemalensis, Cupressus lusitanica, Juniperus standleyi, Quercus spp., Dendropanax lempirianus, Drymis granadensis, a ground cover of Ericaceae, Lycopodiaceae, and epiphytic Bromeliaceae in a cool cloud forest type usually between 2,700-2,850 m on the highest mountain summits. Similar forests occur in Guatemala and the southern states of Mexico, but there extensive pine forests predominate, in which P. hartwegii increasingly dominates with rising altitude. Its altitudinal range in Guatemala and Mexico is similar: (2,300-)2,500-4,000(-4,300) m a.s.l. At lower elevations it is often mixed with P. montezumae, with which it is closely related, and with other pines depending on the geographical area. Soils are both from volcanic and granitic rock, of various depths, but often poor in nutrients. Climatically there are considerable differences congruent with latitude/altitude gradients, with heavy frost and snow during several months and often high winds near the tree lines of the high volcanoes in Central Mexico.|
|Use and Trade:||Pinus hartwegii has fairly dense, but resinous wood. It is exploited as a timber tree where stands are extensive and accessible, but due to high altitude and consequent lack of infrastructure (access roads) many forests remain virtually untouched today. Its wood is used as round wood for posts and sawn for construction or railway sleepers, while it is also pulped for the paper industry. Despite its hardiness, originating from very high altitudes, it is very rare in cultivation, in some instances under its taxonomic synonym P. rudis.|
|Major Threat(s):||With global warming, the habitats of this species are becoming less cold and this is resulting in the trees becoming more stressed, weakening the species and allowing attacks of pests such as bark beetles (Dendroctonus spp.).|
|Conservation Actions:||This widespread species is present in many protected areas, including several national parks.|
|Citation:||Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus hartwegii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 May 2015.|
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