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Pinus densiflora

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES PINACEAE

Scientific Name: Pinus densiflora
Species Authority: Siebold & Zucc.
Common Name(s):
English Japanese Red Pine
Synonym(s):
Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc. variety funebris (Kom.) T.N.Liou and Q.L.Wang ex Silba
Pinus funebris Kom.
Pinus sylvestris L. variety sylvestriformis (Taken.) W.C.Cheng & C.D.Chu
Taxonomic Notes: Pinus funebris Komarov has been described as a separate species from North Korea and the adjacent Russian border area; some later authors considered it to be a variety of P. densiflora. Quite a number of other forms or varieties (e.g. P. densiflora var. ussuriensis T.N.Liou & Q.L.Wang - a synonym of P. sylvestris; P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis S.J. Zhang) were subsequently described and named, all from NE China. None of these are recognized here.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-01-28
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Page, C.
Justification:
Due its very large extent of occurrence, Pinus densiflora is assessed as Least Concern despite continued exploitation in some parts of its range.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Recorded from China: Heilongjiang, Jiling, Liaoning; Japan: Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku; North and South Korea; and from the Russian Far East: Primorye.
Countries:
Native:
China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong); Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku); Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Russian Federation (Primoryi)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is thought to be stable.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Pinus densiflora occurs in extensive pure stands in many parts of its range and is one of the most dominant conifers in Japan and Korea. It grows in a variety of acidic soils, from dry sandy or rocky sites to peaty soils. In Japan it reaches from near sea level (and close to the shore) up to 2,300 m in the mountains, but on mainland Asia its altitudinal range is more restricted and extends upward to only 900 m a.s.l. in NE China and 1,300 m in Korea. In areas where broad-leaved forest dominates, P. densiflora is restricted to poorer sites such as rock outcrops on south-facing slopes and edges of moors or mountain lakes. Here it mixes with the angiosperms and can quickly recolonize ahead of them after forest fires.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Japanese Red Pine is very similar (and closely related) to Scots Pine and has consequently similar wood properties; it is an important timber tree in NE Asia. The wood is today mainly used in the paper industry, but also still provides timber for underground mining and for railway sleepers, as well as construction timber. Foresters in Japan and the USA have produced hybrids with P. thunbergii and P. massoniana and with P. nigra as well as with P. sylvestris. In Japan, this species is extensively planted for forestry as well as for amenity; in Japanese horticulture perhaps as many as 100 cultivars are known. This pine and its cultivars are often used in Japanese landscape gardens of larger size, traditionally around shrines and in palace grounds. Relatively few of these cultivars, and indeed the species itself, have made their way to Europe, probably because there P. sylvestris offers similar opportunities for horticultural experimentation. It is also used in bonsai. Needles and extracts from them are used in traditional medicine such as aromatherapy. The pollen is edible and also used as medicine.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Exploitation of this species is not thought to have led to decline over its huge extent of occurrence.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in several protected areas across it range.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus densiflora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 December 2014.
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