Pinus brutia 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Pinus brutia
Species Authority: Ten.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Calabrian Pine, Brutia Pine
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
Taxonomic Notes: Four varieties are recognized; the typical variety which is widespread in the eastern Mediterranean, var. eldarica from the Caucasus, Iran and Iraq, var. pendulifolia from Turkey and var. pityusa from the Caucasus and Crimea. Pinus brutia var. eldarica has been separately assessed as Near Threatened while P. brutia var. pityusa has been separately assessed as Vulnerable due to habitat loss in many areas.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-08-03
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D
Pinus brutia is assessed as Least Concern as it is widespread and abundant in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, and actually spreading from plantations.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Found in the eastern Mediterranean Region; around the Black Sea; Caucasus; Turkey; NW Iran; and N Iraq. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are both beyond the thresholds for any threatened category.
Countries occurrence:
Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Cyprus; Georgia; Greece (East Aegean Is., Kriti); Lebanon; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey; Ukraine (Krym)
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is thought to be increasing.
Current Population Trend: Increasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: No
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Pinus brutia can form extensive, relatively open pine forests, either pure or mixed with Cupressus sempervirens and Juniperus excelsa, or mixed open woodland with Quercus coccifera or Q. calliprinos, Pistacio lentiscus and other drought tolerant trees. It regenerates after fire by seed dispersal and can successfully invade maquis vegetation when this does not burn for several years. The near-coastal natural distribution of this pine coincides with the Mediterranean climate characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. In contrast with planted forests, natural forests of Pinus brutia have a diverse undergrowth of shrubs and herbs and form important habitat for wildlife. The altitudinal range of this species is from near sea level to 1,500 m.
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: No
Generation Length (years): 30

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Pinus brutia has been planted extensively in countries around the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea as it is the easiest pine to grow (with P. halepensis) in the Mediterranean climate. It was originally described from Calabria in Italy, which is probably a planted source. Frequent use of P. halepensis sources from the western Mediterranean threaten to destroy the genetic distinctions between the two species, possibly also in natural stands of P. brutia. The latter species has a 'better' stem shape and growth from a forestry point of view and should therefore be protected. Its timber is used for fencing posts, telephone posts, building timbers, railway sleepers, carpentry, boxes and crates, hardboard and pulp. The resin of both pines has been used from ancient times to flavour white wines known as retsina and is still tapped especially in Turkey, now mainly for the production of turpentine. In horticulture its use is less common, mainly as an occasional amenity tree in villages and towns around the Mediterranean Sea; this species was also tried as a forestry plantation tree in SE Australia.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No specific threats have been identified for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in many protected areas within its range.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus brutia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42347A2974345. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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