Pinus brutia


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Pinus brutia
Species Authority: Ten.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name/s:
English Calabrian Pine, Brutia Pine
Taxonomic Notes: Four varieties are recognized; the typical variety which is widespread in the eastern Mediterranean, var. eldarica from the Caucasus, Iran and Iraq, var. pendulifolia from Turkey and var. pityusa from the Caucasus and Crimea. Pinus brutia var. eldarica has been separately assessed as Near Threatened while P. brutia var. pityusa has been separately assessed as Vulnerable due to habitat loss in many areas.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-08-03
Assessor/s: Farjon, A.
Reviewer/s: Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D
Pinus brutia is assessed as Least Concern as it is widespread and abundant in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, and actually spreading from plantations.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Found in the eastern Mediterranean Region; around the Black Sea; Caucasus; Turkey; NW Iran; and N Iraq. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are both beyond the thresholds for any threatened category.
Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Cyprus; Georgia; Greece (East Aegean Is., Kriti); Lebanon; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey; Ukraine (Krym)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is thought to be increasing.
Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Pinus brutia can form extensive, relatively open pine forests, either pure or mixed with Cupressus sempervirens and Juniperus excelsa, or mixed open woodland with Quercus coccifera or Q. calliprinos, Pistacio lentiscus and other drought tolerant trees. It regenerates after fire by seed dispersal and can successfully invade maquis vegetation when this does not burn for several years. The near-coastal natural distribution of this pine coincides with the Mediterranean climate characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. In contrast with planted forests, natural forests of Pinus brutia have a diverse undergrowth of shrubs and herbs and form important habitat for wildlife. The altitudinal range of this species is from near sea level to 1,500 m.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No specific threats have been identified for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in many protected areas within its range.
Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus brutia. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 16 April 2014.
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