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Pinus banksiana

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES PINACEAE

Scientific Name: Pinus banksiana
Species Authority: Lamb.
Common Name(s):
English Jack Pine, Hudson Bay Pine, Black Pine

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-23
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Stritch, L.
Justification:
This is the most widespread and abundant species of pine in North America and is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Northern North America, from Nova Scotia and Pennsylvania to Northwest Territories and Alberta.
Countries:
Native:
Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Québec, Saskatchewan); United States (Indiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Wisconsin)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Locally abundant.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Pinus banksiana is a boreal to subarctic pine with a wide distribution in the lowlands of the North (max. alt. 800 m a.s.l.), where it reaches the Arctic tree line and merges with the tundra. Except for a small part of its range in Nova Scotia, it occurs in continental climate conditions with short, warm summers, and long, very cold winters and low precipitation, about half of it as snow. It grows mostly on dry, sandy soils but is also found on thin soils over granite or metamorphosed rock and on peat. This pine is highly adapted to fires, which are frequent in the taiga forests and can destroy vast areas of forest cover. Its serotinous cones rarely open without the heat of fire and remain for many years on the branches. Jack pine is the most successful coniferous pioneer after fire, producing seeds at an early age. It is often accompanied by Betula papyrifera or Populus tremuloides. Later successional phases may bring in Picea mariana especially in boggy situations, and Larix laricina, Picea glauca and Abies balsamifera. On the southern line of its distribution Pinus banksiana can be a component of a more diverse mixed forest with Pinus resinosa and broadleaved trees such as Quercus spp. and Acer rubrum.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Despite its relatively small size, Jack Pine is an important timber tree for pulpwood, lumber and round timber, mainly because it is the most widely distributed species of pine in Canada and its pioneer ecology guarantees even-aged stands with high yields per ha even under natural conditions. Its wood is also used in carpentry and joinery, for containers, pallets and crates as well as particle-board. It was introduced to Europe in 1785, but has limited value in horticulture and is present only as specimen trees in most arboreta in countries or regions with a cool to cold climate. A few mutants, some from witches brooms, are grown as cultivars. Extensive planting in forestry has usually been associated with afforestation of poor sandy soils in northern regions; there it remained a small tree of irregular shape in most instances.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No specific threats have been identified for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is known from several protected areas across its range.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus banksiana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 November 2014.
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