|Scientific Name:||Picea orientalis|
|Species Authority:||(L.) Peterm.|
Pinus orientalis L.
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||REF.: N. Ketskhoveli, A. Kharadze and R. Gagnidze (eds.) 1 71. Flora of Georgia. 2nd ed. Tbilisi: Metsniereba. Vol. I. 158 p. (in Georgian)
Orlova, L. V. 2003. Fam. Pinaceae Adans. In: A. L. Takhtajan (ed.). Caucasus Flora Conspectus. Tree volumes. U. L. Menitskiy and T. N. Popova (eds.). Vol. I. St. Petersburg: Publishing House of St. Petersburg University. P. 174-17 . (in Russian) [Орлова, Л. В. 2003. Fam. Pinaceae Adans. В кн.: А. Л. Тахтаджян (отв. ред.) Конспект флоры Кавказа. В 3-х томах. Ю. Л. Меницкий, Т. Н. Попова (ред.). Том 1. СПб.: Изд-во С.-Петерб. ун-та. С. 174-17 .]
Coode, M.J.E. and Cullen, J. 1 65. Picea Dietr. In: Davis, P. H. (ed.). Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean Islands. Edinburgh: The University Press. Vol. 1. P. 70-71.
The Plant List (2010). Version 1. Published on the Internet; http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed 22nd July, 2011).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D|
P. orientalis is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened category but population monitoring as well as control over logging are necessary conservation actions to avoid future decline.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Picea orientalis is endemic to the Caucasus Biodiversity Hotspot distributed in Abkhazeti, Svaneti, Racha-Lechkhumi, Samegrelo, Guria, Adzhara, Kartli, Shiga Kartli, Mtiuleti, Trialeti, Dzhavakheti, and Meskheti floristic regions in Georgia; in Krasnodar Kray, Adygeya, Karachaevo-Cherkessia, Severnaya Ossethia, and Chechnya in the North Caucasus', the Russian Federation; and A6 Ordu, A7 Giresun, A7 Gümüşhane, A7 Trabzon, A8 Artvin, A8 Rize, A9 Çoruh, and A9 Kars regions in Turkey.|
Native:Georgia; Russian Federation; Turkey
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||160000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||600|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||2100|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The species makes up coniferous and mixed forests in upper montane zone covering large areas within the distribution range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Dark coniferous and mixed forests made up of Oriental Spruce are vertically spread from 600 to 2,100 m a.s.l. This shade-enduring and moisture-loving tree usually grows on brown forest soils but can often be found also on stony and rocky slopes from the Black Sea coast to the Central Greater Caucasus and the eastern ends of the Trialeti ridge on the Lesser Caucasus. It forms pure stands or is associated with Abies nordmanniana, Pinus kochiana, Fagus orientalis. Oriental Spruce dominated forest may have various types of undergrowth, of which the Colchic type made up of evergreen shrubs and dwarf trees such as Laurocerasus officinalis, Ilex colchica, Buxus colchica, Taxus baccata, Rhododendron spp. is worth special mentioning.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||40|
|Use and Trade:||Oriental Spruce is an important timber tree in the Caucasus, where it forms extensive pure stands, many of which are managed for forestry. It has also been introduced as a forestry plantation tree in countries in the eastern Mediterranean. The wood of this species is of good quality, comparable to that of Norway Spruce, and is put to similar uses. Among these are construction, flooring, carpentry, furniture making, and parts of musical instruments. In horticulture, this spruce is sometimes grown as a Christmas tree, but more commonly as an amenity tree for parks and large gardens in many European countries and in the USA. A good number of cultivars is in the trade, among which are dwarf forms, forms with yellowish flushing leaves and those with 'mounding' habits.|
|Major Threat(s):||Selective logging, agricultural land development and insect damage are the major threats to the species although these are not thought to be causing an overall decline.|
|Conservation Actions:||P. orientalis occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range, e.g. Meryemana Forest (Pontic Mts., Turkey), Kintrishi, Ritsa, Algeti Protected Areas (Georgia), Teberda Nature Reserve (Russian Caucasus). Population monitoring; species based actions such as selective logging and trade management are needed.|
|Citation:||Farjon, A. 2013. Picea orientalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42332A2973275. . Downloaded on 03 May 2016.|
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