Picea glauca 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Picea glauca (Moench) Voss
Common Name(s):
English White Spruce, Canadian Spruce
Pinus glauca Moench
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
Taxonomic Notes: Two varieties are recognized: the typical nominate variety  (var. glauca) and P. glauca var. albertiana (S.Br.) Sarg. which has been considered a product of introgressive hybridization with Picea engelmannii. It is known from Montana and Alberta. The varieties are not assessed separately.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-14
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P.
Picea glauca and its constituent varieties (var. glauca and var. albertiana) are assessed as Least Concern as they are the most widespread spruce in North America.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Occurs in Boreal North America: from Newfoundland and New York to NW Alaska and W Montana.
Countries occurrence:
Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland I, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward I., Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); United States (Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New York, South Dakota)
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):5
Upper elevation limit (metres):2100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Forms extensive forests.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is the major conifer in the vast Boreal forest of North America; it occurs at elevations between 5 m and 1,900 m a.s.l. (var. albertiana up to 2,100 m). The soils are usually of fluvial or glacial origin, neutral or slightly acid and often podzolized. The climate is cold continental in much of its range, but cold maritime in the extreme east, the precipitation varies between 200 mm and 1,250 mm, the growing season between 25 and 160 days. It grows in pure stands or mixed with (sparse) Betula papyrifera, also with other conifers in various parts of the range; it invades successional stages with various northern broad leaved trees
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):40

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Stretching accross the northern part of the North American continent White Spruce is a major Boreal timber resource. Its wood is strong and suitable for general construction timber as well as pulp wood; the latter is probably its major use because in many regions of its range sizes of trees are small in comparison to conifers growing further south. Log cabins in Alaska are often built with White Spruce, with the bark left on the outside and moss put between the logs. High grade, straight and even-grained timber is used for indoor finishing and flooring, carpentry and joinery. Small volume uses are the manufacture of boxes, musical instruments (sounding boards) and canoe paddles. White Spruce is planted as an amenity tree mainly in northern countries. In horticulture, southern provenances (var. albertiana) are more common and most of the dwarfed cultivars come from this source. Some dwarf cultivars originated from witches brooms and are particularly slow growing and suitable for rockeries

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No specific threats have been identified for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is known from several protected areas across its range,

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Picea glauca. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42323A2972485. . Downloaded on 19 October 2017.
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