Juniperus oxycedrus


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Juniperus oxycedrus
Species Authority: L.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name/s:
English Prickly Juniper
French Oxycèdre, Genévrier epineux, Genévrier cade
Spanish Enebro de Bajas Rochas, Kade

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-07-22
Assessor/s: Farjon, A.
Reviewer/s: Adams, R & Thomas, P.
The species as a whole is assessed as Least Concern as it is so widespread and locally common in the Mediterranean area.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Recorded from the Mediterranean Region, around the Black Sea and Middle East: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Caucasus, Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Iran (Azerbajian), Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Macedonia, Malta, Morocco, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Spain, Syria, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine: Krym [Crimea].
Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Cyprus; France (Corsica); Georgia; Gibraltar; Greece (East Aegean Is., Kriti); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Jordan; Lebanon; Libya; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal; Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Spain (Baleares); Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine (Krym)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Very widespread and often common to abundant.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: A common shrub in Mediterranean sclerophyll scrubland (maquis, garrigue); also in dry woodland with Pinus spp., Carpinus betulus, Quercus ilex and other oaks, Quercus-Lentiscus scrub, as well as in montane and wetter forest with Cedrus libani, Pinus nigra, Juniperus foetidissima, and J. excelsa. The altitudinal range is 1-2,200 m a.s.l. It occurs on dry, stony slopes in thin soils over all kinds of rock from calcareous to siliceous and serpentine, but uncommonly on sand dunes; in pastures at higher altitudes it is usually a sign of overgrazing. It is largely restricted to regions with a Mediterranean climate, but in the Balkans and the Iberian Peninsula it may occur in more continental conditions. The subspecies badia and oxycedrus are tolerant of frost, unlike the subspecies macrocarpa and transtagana. The latter two are largely restricted to coastal dunes or old, vegetated beaches on sand, where they occur in open pine woods (Pinus halepensis, P. brutia, P. pinea) as well as in scrub (garrigue, maquis) or associated with coastal grasses.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No overall threats have been identified for this species although coastal urban and tourist developments have had some impact on coastal subpopulations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in many protected areas throughout its range.
Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Juniperus oxycedrus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 20 April 2014.
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