Encephalartos umbeluziensis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos umbeluziensis
Species Authority: R.A.Dyer
Common Name(s):
English Umbeluzi Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Bösenberg, J.D.
Reviewer(s): Donaldson, J.S. & Achenbag, L.
Originally classified as Vulnerable in 2003, but qualifies as Endangered based on small extent of occurrence (336 km²) and area of occupancy, occurrence at <5 locations and and ongoing decline due to habitat loss and removal of plants. Also qualifies as Endangered under criterion C1 due to population size being <2,500 mature individuals and ongoing decline that is estimated to exceed 20% over two generations (capped at 100 years from now).
Previously published Red List assessments:
2003 Vulnerable (VU)
1998 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in a number of localities in Mozambique and Swaziland. The population is restricted to the valley of the Umbeluzi River. Occurs from 50 to 120 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Mozambique; Swaziland
Number of Locations: 4
Lower elevation limit (metres): 50
Upper elevation limit (metres): 120
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is thought to number between 1,000 and 1,500 mature individuals.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 1000-1500
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in the shade of low scrub woodland or in relatively dry savanna and bushveld. To the west the plants are found in valleys and further eastwards towards Mozambique they occur on the floodplains of rivers.
Systems: Terrestrial
Generation Length (years): 35

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Illegal removal of plants from the wild has been recorded, even within reserves.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Populations are protected in the Mlawula Nature Reserve in Swaziland.

Citation: Bösenberg, J.D. 2010. Encephalartos umbeluziensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41927A10601142. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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