Encephalartos umbeluziensis


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Encephalartos umbeluziensis
Species Authority: R.A.Dyer
Common Name(s):
English Umbeluzi Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Bösenberg, J.D.
Reviewer(s): Donaldson, J.S. & Achenbag, L.
Originally classified as Vulnerable in 2003, but qualifies as Endangered based on small extent of occurrence (336 km²) and area of occupancy, occurrence at <5 locations and and ongoing decline due to habitat loss and removal of plants. Also qualifies as Endangered under criterion C1 due to population size being <2,500 mature individuals and ongoing decline that is estimated to exceed 20% over two generations (capped at 100 years from now).
2003 Vulnerable (IUCN 2003)
2003 Vulnerable
1997 Vulnerable (Walter and Gillett 1998)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in a number of localities in Mozambique and Swaziland. The population is restricted to the valley of the Umbeluzi River. Occurs from 50 to 120 m asl.
Mozambique; Swaziland
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is thought to number between 1,000 and 1,500 mature individuals.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in the shade of low scrub woodland or in relatively dry savanna and bushveld. To the west the plants are found in valleys and further eastwards towards Mozambique they occur on the floodplains of rivers.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Illegal removal of plants from the wild has been recorded, even within reserves.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Populations are protected in the Mlawula Nature Reserve in Swaziland.

Citation: Bösenberg, J.D. 2010. Encephalartos umbeluziensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 01 April 2015.
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