Sus scrofa 

Scope: Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Suidae

Scientific Name: Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Wild Boar, Eurasian Wild Pig, Ryukyu Islands Wild Pig
French Sanglier, Sanglier d'Eurasie
Spanish JabalĂ­
Sus andamanensis Blyth, 1858
Sus aruensis Rosenberg, 1878
Sus babi Miller, 1906
Sus ceramensis Rosenberg, 1878
Sus enganus Lyon, 1916
Sus floresianus Jentink, 1905
Sus goramensis De Beaux, 1924
Sus natunensis Miller, 1901
Sus nicobaricus Miller, 1902
Sus niger Finsch, 1886
Sus papuensis Lesson & Garnot, 1826
Sus ternatensis Rolleston, 1877
Sus tuancus Lyon, 1916

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2007
Date Assessed: 2006-05-20
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Juan Herrero, Giorgos Giannatos, Andreas Kranz, Jim Conroy
Reviewer(s): Craig Hilton-Taylor and Helen Temple
The species is widespread, extremely abundant and facing no major threats.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The wild boar has a large global distribution extending from western Europe and North Africa eastwards through the Middle East and central and south-east Asia, reaching its south-eastern limit at the Greater Sunda Islands. In Europe, it is widespread in most continental areas, with the exception of northern Fennoscandia and European Russia. It disappeared from the British Isles and Scandinavia in the 17th century, although it has now been reintroduced to Sweden and escaped animals have established themselves in the wild in Britain (Spitz 1999). It is native to Corsica and Sardinia, but the population in Sicily was introduced (Spitz 1999). Animals have escaped from captivity in the UK and have established themselves in the wild. There are at least three small wild populations in England, on the Kent/East Sussex border, in Dorset, and in Hereford (Battersby 2005). In Europe it is found from sea level to 2,400 in the Pyrenees (Palomo and Gisbert 2002).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Wild boar populations in Europe increased markedly during the latter part of the 20th century (Spitz 1999), but are now thought to be stable in most areas (EMA Workshop 2006). Populations in England, southern Sweden and Finland may still be increasing (Battersby 2005, EMA Workshop 2006).
Current Population Trend:Increasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is found in a variety of temperate and tropical habitats. It prefers broadleaved forests and especially evergreen oak forests, but may also be found in more open habitats such as steppe, mediterranean shrubland, and farmland, so long as there is water and tree cover nearby (Spitz 1999). It has an omnivorous diet, consuming vegetable matter (e.g. beech mast, acorns, green plants, tubers), carrion, and live animal prey (earthworms, insect larvae, small vertebrates) (Herre 1986, Oliver 1993).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to the species. It is considered a pest in parts of its range (Oliver 1993, Battersby 2005). Tuberculosis may be an issue in some areas, especially in managed populations. The disease does not kill the animals, but it is becoming increasingly prevalent (EMA Workshop 2006). Occasionally there are outbreaks of swine fever and African swine fever which cause local mortality, but populations recover rapidly (Oliver 1993). Habitat destruction, hunting (for food and sport), and persecution (often in reprisal for crop damage) may cause local declines in parts of the range (Oliver 1993).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in a large number of protected areas across its range. No specific conservation actions are recommended in Europe, except perhaps measures to control the population in certain places (EMA Workshop 2006).

Citation: Juan Herrero, Giorgos Giannatos, Andreas Kranz, Jim Conroy. 2007. Sus scrofa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T41775A10562008. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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