|Scientific Name:||Callicebus caligatus|
|Species Authority:||(Wagner, 1842)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) and van Roosmalen et al. (2002) recognize five species groups – cupreus, donacophilus, moloch, personatus and torquatus. According to van Roosmalen et al. (2002), the cupreus group contains C. caligatus, C. cupreus, C. discolor, C. dubius, C. ornatus, and C. stephennashi.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Least Concern due to its relatively large range in a pristine region of the Amazon, and because there are no known major threats believed to be resulting in a decline sufficient to qualify it for listing in a threatened category.
|Range Description:||Central Amazonia, Amazonas state, Brazil, south of the Rio Solimões in the interfluve delineated by the lower Rios Purús, Solimões and Madeira, south as far as the Rio Ipixuna (or Paranapixuna). Hershkovitz (1990) considered the species sympatric with Callicebus dubius, C. brunneus, and C. cupreus, based on, in his view, mislabeled specimens collected by the Olalla brothers in Boca Río Inuya, Iquitos, Río Orosa, Río Tapiche and Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, in the department of Loreto, Peru. Voss and Emmons (1996) note that Hershkovitz' report on the sympatry of two members of the moloch/cupreus Group (C. cupreus and C. caligatus) was an error caused by "inadvertently listing both original and revised identifications of the same series from Orosa among the specimens examined". The correct identification for the monkeys is Callicebus (cupreus) cupreus. Specimens collected by Peres (1993) along both banks of the Rio Juruá and deposited in the Muséu Goeldi, Belém, all were identified as Callicebus (cupreus) cupreus (van Roosmalen et al. 2002).
The geographic distribution for C. caligatus described above contradicts that given by Hershkovitz (1990), who fills in its actual distribution with C. dubius. Four specimens of C. caligatus were caught in July 2001 by locals along the north bank of Lago Jarí at the mouth of Igarapé Bacaba and released at the same place after being measured and photographed, and a complete skeleton with some hair found on the forest floor was collected (private collection no. MGMR55) on the north bank of Rio Ipixuna near its mouth, a few kilometers south of the town of Tapauá.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no information available on the population status of this species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Titi monkeys (Callicebus spp.) are known to occur in a wide range of habitats, although some species exhibit habitat preferences, for example C. lucifer is reported to prefer white-sand forests (E. Heymann pers. comm. 2008), and C. donacophilus drier forests (Ferrari et al. 2000; R. Wallace pers. comm.). Members of the C. moloch and C. cupreus groups are considered tolerant of habitat disturbance caused by human activity or seasonal flooding (van Roosmalen et al. 2002).
The diet of titis comprises mainly fruit pulp, leaves, insects and seeds. They form small, pair-bonded, territorial groups and are considered monogamous. They have small home (1.5-30 km) and day ranges (0.5-1.5 km).
|Major Threat(s):||This species occurs in a remote part of the Amazon, and there are currently no known major threats.|
|Conservation Actions:||It may occur in Tamshiyacu Tahuayo communal reserve in Peru. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.|
|Citation:||Veiga, L.M. 2008. Callicebus caligatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 January 2015.|
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