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Cephalophus nigrifrons

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CETARTIODACTYLA BOVIDAE

Scientific Name: Cephalophus nigrifrons
Species Authority: Gray, 1871
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Black-fronted Duiker
Taxonomic Notes: A number of subspecies are recognized (see Grubb and Groves 2001, Plumptre in press), including a highly distinctive subspecies, the Rwenzori Red Duiker (C. n. rubidus), which may be a separate species, in the alpine and subalpine zones of the Rwenzori Mountains on the Uganda/Congo-Kinshasa border.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern as the species remains reasonably widespread with a total population in the order of 300,000. However, this species’ numbers will continue to decrease gradually as human populations and bushmeat hunting increase within the equatorial forest zone. If current trends continue, it will eventually disappear from large parts of its present range until it is confined to isolated fragments of forest which are effectively protected from hunting and the encroachment of settlement. Current rates of decline are not yet considered to have reached the threshold for Near Threatened.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Black-fronted Duiker occurs widely in swamp forests and alongside watercourses within the equatorial forest zone, from south-eastern Nigeria to the Albertine Rift, and in isolated montane forests in East Africa. The Nigerian population occurs in the Niger Delta and is probably disjunct from the nearest known population in Cameroon (East 1999; Plumptre in press). Isolated populations of this species were recorded on Mounts Cameroon, Kupe and Manengube by Bowden (1986), but Grubb et al. (2003) were not convinced these records relate to Black-fronted Duiker.

C. n. rubidus is confined to the Ruwenzori Mtns at altitudes of 1,300-4,200 m, although it is thus far only recorded from the Ugandan side (Kingdon 1982, Grubb and Groves 2001; Kingdon in press).
Countries:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Kenya; Nigeria; Rwanda; Uganda
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: East (1999) produced a total population estimate of about 300,000. Population trends are probably downwards over large parts of the species’ range, except for areas where hunting pressures are low because of low human population densities and/or active protection.

East (1999) suggested that the population of the Rwenzori Red Duiker may number at least in the thousands.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Tropical forests of central Africa ranging from lowland swamp forest and seasonally flooded forest with poorly drained or permanently saturated soils (where it is frequently encountered along streams and in marshy areas) to montane forests, subalpine vegetation zones, bamboo, and moorland on Mounts Elgon and Kenya and the Aberdares (Kenya).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Like most other forest duikers, the distribution and numbers of this species have been reduced markedly in areas of dense human settlement and intensive hunting for bushmeat, but it survives in good numbers in areas where the level of human activities is relatively low (East 1999).

Although much of the range of the Rwenzori Red Duiker falls in a national park, the species nonetheless remains susceptible to snaring, and to habitat loss in the lower elevations of its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Black-fronted Duiker is present in a number of protected areas such as Lobeke (Cameroon), Dzanga-Sangha and Bangassou (Central African Republic), Lake Tele-Likouala and Nouabale-Ndoki (Congo-Brazzaville), Virunga, Ituri, Maiko, Kahuzi-Biega and Salonga (Congo-Kinshasa), Bwindi (Uganda), Volcanoes National Park (Rwanda) and Mount Kenya. Most of these key populations are stable.

Much of the Ugandan range of the Rwenzori Red Duiker is included within Rwenzori Mountains National Park. There is a need for further taxonomic work to determine whether this subspecies does indeed deserve recognition as a distinct species (as considered by Kingdon in press).

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group 2008. Cephalophus nigrifrons. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 July 2014.
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