|Scientific Name:||Lepus tolai|
|Species Authority:||Pallas, 1778|
Lepus tolai was formerly included in L. capensis or L. europaeus (Hoffmann and Smith 2005). It formerly included L. tibetanus; but also see Bannikov, 1965, Sokolov and Orlov (1980:85), and Shou et al. (1962); Qui (1989) also provided evidence of differentiation of L. tibetanus but did not address specific status. Formerly included przewalskii, now assigned to L. oiostolus; see Cai and Feng (1982).
There are eight recognized subspecies: Lepus tolai aurigineus, L. t. buchariensis, L. t. cheybani, L. t. cinnamomeus, L. t. filcheri, L. t. lehmanni, L. t. swinhoei, and L. t. tolai (Hoffmann and Smith 2005).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||China Red List & Johnston, C.H.|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, A.T. & Boyer, A.F. (Lagomorph Red List Authority)|
Lepus tolai is a widespread species that occurs in many protected areas, has a large population size, and has no known widespread major threats.
|Range Description:||The geographic distribution of Lepus tolai extends from the northern and eastern shores of the Caspian Sea, south to Iran, east through Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, and southern Siberia, as well as the "Middle Asia republics to Mongolia; and W, C, NE China" (Hoffmann and Smith 2005). This species was observed at an elevation of 8,000 m on Yihe-Bogdo, Mongolia (Ognev 1966). In China, it is usually located at elevations between 600-900 m (Smith and Xie 2008). Evidence of a single specimen in South Asia, may extend the distribution as far south as Jammu and Kashmir, India (Chakraborty et al. 2005).|
Native:Afghanistan; China (Anhui, Beijing, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Russian Federation; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Mongolia, populations are characterized as large, with no apparent decline (Clark et al. 2006). One study looked at Mongolian commercial harvest data obtain from Dornad Aimag between 1932-1993, which did not indicate any apparent change in L. tolai takes (Reading et al. 1998). The authors specify that the data may or may not provide a valid indication of population trends (Reading et al. 1998). In southern Uzbekistan, pelt takes decreased from 8,751 in 1959 to 595 in 1977 (Volozheninov 1980). It is inferred that this species is sufficiently abundant in China, where is it categorized as Least Concern (Wang and Xie 2004). There are no data available to characterize populations for the remainder of its distribution.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||In Mongolia, this species inhabits semi-desert, mountain-steppe, forest steppe, and rocky habitats (Tsevegmid and Tsendjav 2004). The following information is in respect to the Chinese distribution. This species occurs in grasslands and forest meadows (Smith and Xie 2008). It is a nocturnal species (Smith and Xie 2008). Diet consists of roots, grass and other herbaceous plants (Smith and Xie 2008). Total length of this species is 40.0-59.0 cm (Smith and Xie 2008). L. tolai will produce two to three litters per year, with two to six young per litter (Smith and Xie 2008). No data was available for the rest of its distribution.|
|Major Threat(s):||Hunting for meat, skins, and for traditional medicines has been identified as threats to Lepus tolai in Mongolia (Clark et al. 2006).|
|Conservation Actions:||In Mongolia, approximately 12% of the species' distribution occurs in protected areas (Clark et al. 2006) and has been recorded in Hustai National Park (Todgerel 2002). This species is present in many nature reserves in China (CSIS 2008). In China, it is regionally Red Listed as Least Concern (Wang and Xie 2004). It has also been regionally Red Listed as Least Concern in Mongolia (Clark et al. 2006).|
|Citation:||China Red List & Johnston, C.H. 2008. Lepus tolai. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 January 2015.|
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