Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Caryophyllales Cactaceae

Scientific Name: Turbinicarpus pseudomacrochele
Species Authority: (Backeb.) Buxb. & Backeb.
Common Name(s):
Spanish Biznaugita
Strombocactus pseudomacrochele Backeb.
Taxonomic Source(s): Hunt, D., Taylor, N. and Charles, G. (compilers and editors). 2006. The New Cactus Lexicon. dh Books, Milborne Port, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Accepted as a species by Anderson (2001) and Hunt (1999). Four subspecies are recognized, the nominate form, subsp. krainzianus (Gerhart Frank) Glass, subsp. lausseri (Diers & Gerhart Frank) Glass and subsp. minimus (Gerhart Frank) Lüthy & A.Hofer . Two of the subspecies were previously assessed in 2002, namely the nominate as Vulnerable and subsp. lausseri as Critically Endangered. but as they have not been reassessed they are now excluded from the IUCN Red List.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2009-11-18
Assessor(s): Gómez-Hinostrosa, C., Sánchez , E. & Guadalupe Martínez, J.
Reviewer(s): Superina, M. & Goettsch, B.K.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hilton-Taylor, C.
Turbinicarpus pseudomacrochele is considered to be Endangered due to a limited range (extent of occurrence 450 km²) and because it is known from less than five locations (defined by the threat of overcollecting). The population is declining due to the ongoing removal of plants by collectors. Mining of limestone for cement production is also a threat in some places (Anderson et al. 1994). It is estimated that there are less than 2,500 mature individuals, which are continuing to decline across the range of the species.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2002 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This cactus has a fairly restricted range (extent of occurrence about 450 km2), which extends over the States of Hidalgo and Querétaro, Mexico. It is known from 11 subpopulations.
Countries occurrence:
Mexico (Hidalgo, Querétaro)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 450
Number of Locations: 5
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The total population size is less than 2,500 mature individuals.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species grows in semi-desert (matorral) among calcareous rocks.
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is collected in the wild to be used as an ornamental and as a medicine.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Illegal collecting both for human consumption (narcotic) and for ornamental purposes, and mining of limestone pose a threat to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This cactus is listed on CITES Appendix I, but the laws governing imports in the countries of destination need to be enforced. This species has been widely propagated for many years. The taxonomy of the species needs further investigation.

The species is legally protected in Mexico by the national list of species at risk of extinction, NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, where it is listed under the category “at risk of extinction” (P; SEMARNAT 2010). 

The Cadereyta Regional Botanic Gardens has developed a universal technique to reproduce species of the genus Turbinicarpus (including Gymnocactus), with a rate of 5x/4 weeks and 95% soil adaptation success (E. Sánchez pers. comm. 2011).

Citation: Gómez-Hinostrosa, C., Sánchez , E. & Guadalupe Martínez, J. 2013. Turbinicarpus pseudomacrochele. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T40983A2949357. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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